MedicinalHerbsHANDBOOK OFSECOND EDITION
1284_frame_FM Page 2 Thursday, May 23, 2002 10:53 AM
CRC PRESSBoca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.MedicinalHerbsJames A. DukewithMary Jo Bogenschutz-GodwinJudi duCellierPeggy-Ann K. DukeHANDBOOK OFSECOND EDITION
Peggy-Ann K. Duke has the copyright to all black and white line and color illustrations.The author would like to express thanks to Nature’s Herbs for the color slides presented in the book. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted withpermission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publishreliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materialsor for the consequences of their use.Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,including photocopying, microﬁlming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without priorpermission in writing from the publisher.The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works,or for resale. Speciﬁc permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying.Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only foridentiﬁcation and explanation, without intent to infringe. Visit the CRC Press Web site at www.crcpress.com © 2002 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government worksInternational Standard Book Number 0-8493-1284-1Library of Congress Card Number 2002017548Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0Printed on acid-free paper Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Duke, James A., 1929-Handbook of medicinal herbs / James A. Duke, with Mary Jo Bogenschutz-Godwin,Judi duCellier, Peggy-Ann K. Duke.– 2nd ed.p. cm.Previously published: CRC handbook of medicinal herbs.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 0-8493-1284-1 (alk. paper)1. Medicinal plants. 2. Herbs. 3. Herbals. 4. Traditional medicine. 5. Material medica,Vegetable. I. Duke, James A., 1929- CRC handbook of medicinal herbs. II. Title.[DNLM: 1. Medicine, Herbal. 2. Plants, Medicinal.]QK99.A1 D83 2002615 ′ .321–dc21 2002017548
Introduction By the time this second edition is published, the ﬁrst edition of the
will have been out more than 15 years. The second edition is designed to present most of the oldinformation plus new information on the more important of those original 365 herbs. I submittedthe ﬁrst edition under the original unpublished title, Herbs of Dubious Salubrity. I intentionally leftout many of the completely safe culinary herbs, spices, and food plants that are clearly medicinal.I also intentionally omitted some strictly dangerous herbs, such as foxglove, that were too unhealthyfor use in unskilled hands. I did include several obscure hallucinogenic plants of dubious salubrity.I did, or should have, dropped some of these because they have little medicinal importance. Somepoorly documented species, such as Mimosa hostilis and Phoradendron leucarpum , for example,were retained with fragmentary entries, so as to at least mention species from the ﬁrst edition thatmight better have been dropped.Now I think I have the most important herbs well covered here. In edition two, which I willrefer to frequently as my Herbal Desk Reference (HDR), I have tried to concisely corral the dataon some 1000 herbs in as little space as possible, striving to make a reliable, referenced resourceto parallel the PDR for Herbal Medicines . I use the three-letter abbreviation, HDR, to indicate thesecond edition of my
, because I compare and contrast it to otherimportant sources, which are also represented by three-letter abbreviations. (See the referenceabbreviation appendix.)With this edition, I have tried to cover most of the widely mentioned medicinal plants, whetherthey are extremely salubrious or extremely toxic. Without counting them, I estimate we includemore than 1000 of the most important herbs, including the more important herbs from the youngNative American and the European traditions (including most of those approved by CommissionE (KOM), and almost all of those included in the PDR for Herbal Medicine (PHR for the ﬁrstedition, and PH2 for the second edition). Unlike Commission E and the Herbal PDR, which seemto stress European and American traditions, I include proportionately more herbs from the olderAfrican, Ayurvedic, and Chinese traditions as well, not wanting to slight any major medicinal plantfrom any major tradition.Let me explain the new format for the second edition. First, a common name appears, usuallybut not always in English, followed by a recently accepted scientiﬁc name, with the authority forthe scientiﬁc name. Then follows a safety score, X, +, ++, or +++. An X means I don’t recommendtaking it at all, or realize that it is so dangerous that it should not be taken without expert guidance.But for litigious reasons, I give some potent medicinal herbs the X (amateurs beware!). A singleplus (+) indicates that I do not consider that the herb is, overall, as safe as coffee. I score twopluses (++) for those herbs I think of, overall, as being as safe as coffee. I score three pluses (+++)for those herbs I believe to be safer than coffee. In the ﬁrst edition, I related the plus sign to a cupof coffee, ﬁguring that 1, 2, or 3 cups per day of an herbal tea from the herb would be as safe as1, 2, or 3 cups per day of coffee. I often drink more than 3 cups of coffee a day, especially whileI worked on this project! Clearly, this is an oversimpliﬁcation. Too often, some parts of a plant aremore helpful or more toxic than other parts of the same species, and different ethnic groups orcultures may use parts differently. The safety scoring is a continuation of the same scoring systemI used in the ﬁrst edition. Some scores have been upgraded a bit, some have been downgraded.Often, there are some comments on synonymy and other nomenclature difﬁculties that arosein completing this opus. I inject these following the nomenclature line. Here you may ﬁnd someproven and/or suspected synonyms, or notes of related species that may be included in this species
concept, especially by nontaxonomically trained authors. I have often used, as ﬁnal arbiter ofscientiﬁc names and sometimes common names, the nomenclature database at the USDA (www.ars-grin.gov; curator, Dr. John. H. Wiersema: firstname.lastname@example.org).Unfortunately, the new American Herbal Products Association (AHP) book on nomenclaturearrived too late for our consideration. Attempts to standardize common names, although admirable,are often aggravating to special interests. It was with some misgiving that I arranged this bookalphabetically by common names, when the ﬁrst edition was by scientiﬁc name. It generated bigheadaches for all of us who think more along the lines of scientiﬁc names. Would it be undermulberry or black mulberry, chamomile or German chamomile? Some plants have dozens ofcommon names. Several have suffered almost as many scientiﬁc names, such as, for example,feverfew. Hopefully, you will ﬁnd it easy to use.In the Activities and Indications sections, parenthetical numbers are followed by three-letterabbreviations (abbreviation of source) or an alphanumeric X-1111111 to identify PubMed citations.A parenthetical efﬁcacy score of (1) means that a chemical in the plant or in an extract of the planthas shown the activity or proven out experimentally (animal, not clinical) for the indication. Thiscould be in vitro animal or assay experiments. A hint: not real human proof! Nothing clinical yet!I give it a score of (2) if the aqueous extract, ethanolic extract, or decoction or tea derived fromthe plant has been shown to have the activity, or to support the indication in clinical trials.Commission E (KOM) and Tramil Commission (TRA) approvals were automatically given a scoreof (2) also, because they represented consensus opinions of distinguished panels. The rare scoreof (3) for efﬁcacy means that clinical trials exist to show that the plant itself (not just an extractor phytochemical derivative) has the indications or activities. The solitary score of (f) in many ofthe citations means it is unsupported folk medicine, or I have not seen the science to back it up.The three-letter abbreviations are useful short citations of the references consulted in arriving atthese numbers. I have by no means cited every source. However, unlike KOM and hopefully betterthan PHR, we indicate at least one source for every indication and activity we report.Thus, we have a score for Safety and a score for Efﬁcacy, the latter backed up by the three-letter abbreviations or citations, often PubMed citations. In addition to our three letter abbreviationsfor the frequently consulted texts, we occasionally cite articles cited from the PubMed databasewith their unique abstract number, preceded by the letter X. For example, I received a paper showingthat ginger contained several COX-2 inhibitors. I looked in the PubMed database to ﬁnd the uniqueabstract citation number, PMID: 11437391, which I shortened for database purpose to X11437391.So, all alpha-numeric (X-numerical) combinations will refer you to the source in the PubMeddatabase. Whenever I update one of my Herb-a-Day columns, I automatically search PubMed for>species name AND 2000 <, which automatically gives me the post 1999 abstracts. In 2001, Isearch for >species AND 2001<. Then I order hard copies of those articles that look promising fordatabase purposes.Often, many more than 10 sources were involved in my decision-making. In many instances,I limited citations to three, typically the ones that were most important at arriving at my scores.Not wanting to blow my own horn, my own books were ﬁrst to be deleted from the list when itexceeded three. In preparing this edition I realized that for patent litigation, the earlier citationswere most valuable, so at the last minute I added several older references, such as DEP, FEL, HHB,and MAD. For example, even I was surprised when I read about Remifemin in HHB (1973, p. 12),three decades ago, since Remifemin seems so new here in America. But in my mind it is justanother native American remedy, coming back home to us, slightly upgraded, after having beenbetter studied in Europe than it has been in America (other examples include evening primrose,passionﬂower, and saw palmetto). DEP and FEL citations are more than 100 years old, and mightbe useful in challenging frivolous patents.One very important abbreviation, WAM, might as well be viewed as MOM, meaning pediatric.This comes from the excellent book, Kids, Herbs, Health , by Dr. Linda White, MD, and Sunny
Mavor. So, if you are looking for an herb that has been suggested by a pediatrician, scroll downto WAM. Ditto for PIP, Hans Schilcher’s Phytotherapy in Paediatrics .This is an evolving system that changes as new science validates the folklore, often resultingin an upgrading of the indication or activity. Occasionally, bad news about the plant will result inmy lowering its safety rating, from +++ to ++, or ++ to +, or + to X. This does not constitute myrecommendation of an herb. It merely indicates how I think the herb compares with others, basedon the literature surveyed. As a botanist, I cannot legally, and do not, prescribe. But I ﬁnd mechanicalsearches of the
to be an extremely fast way to ﬁnd the better herbsfor a given indication.We have used the same abbreviations that are used in my database at the USDA (http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke). I much prefer the abbreviations used there because they do not get you into asmuch trouble when you e-mail a query to the taxpaying public. For example, the preferred abbre-viation of microgram, at least with some publishers (including CRC), but not me, is µ g. Too often,if I put that abbreviation (or use an italicized u ) in an e-mail, the u or µ disappears and the readerreceives g instead of u g or µ g, giving an often dangerously high reading, a million times too high.Ditto for u l or µ l (microliter) as opposed to ml (milliliter). And with uM and m M , micromole andmillimole, respectively.In a sense, my scored second edition is a loner’s approach to a Commission E, but I am the solemember of the ﬁctitious commission, Commission U.S. for us, here in the good old USA. Note thatunlike the ratings in, for example, APA, my ratings assess the efﬁcacy of each activity and indication.I’ll keep revising the scoring for an online version as new information, positive or negative,comes in on the safety or efﬁcacy of the herb, or chemicals it contains. So, like the allopaths, healthannouncers, and reporters, I reserve the right to change my mind as I oscillate from side to sideof the pendulum on my long, tedious, treacherous, and tumultuous trip, veering like a coiledcaduceus, deviously toward the truth.Users will ﬁnd it easy to search and ﬁnd which herbs score highest for efﬁcacy and safety. Thethree-letter abbreviations will lead them to some, but by no means all, of the sources I consultedincluding the one(s) or some of them that led me to the numerical scores for efﬁcacy. The scoresare my own. Only rarely did all the cited and consulted sources agree; but one of the indicatedsources provided the evidence that led me to arrive at the assigned score. By no means shouldthese scores be attributed to anyone except me. THE APA RATINGS A warning: my highest ratings are my best ratings. With the American Pharmaceutical Association(APA) and the American Herbal Products Association (AHP), the converse is true: the higher thenumber, the lower the rating. APA’s best, (1), is veriﬁed by large clinical, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, human trials. That too would have gotten approval, we assume, in Commis-sion E. That would get a (2) in my HDR, if the study were of an extract of the plant, but a (3) forexample if the study were of the natural whole herb, such as garlic or onion. The APA (1) and theHDR (3) scores are rare indeed. Their number (1) means “Years of use and extensive, high-qualitystudies indicate that this substance is very effective and safe when used in recommended amountsfor the indication(s) noted in the ‘Will It Work For You?’ section.” Unfortunately, they often mentionunapproved, unstudied folklore in this section, even clearly noting that it was unapproved. With APA,(2) is a large, clinical human trial, but not necessarily double blind and placebo controlled. That wouldalso get a (2) in my HDR, if the study were of an extract of the plant, but a (3) if the study were ofthe whole herb, rather than the extract. And the third one is hard for me to believe, but here is thequote, “large, placebo-controlled animal experiment.” That would get a (1) in my HDR. The APA (4)is for in vitro studies, which I suppose includes studies, e.g., of isolated phytochemicals. Those score(1) in HDR. The APA (5) is for decades or centuries of well-known folk use, but no supporting studies.That would get an (f) for folkloric in the HDR. APA (6) is a large collection of case histories, which
would also get an (f) in HDR. At the bottom of the APA ladder is the personal anecdote, which ofcourse, also gets an (f), even though it has not yet evolved into folklore. THE AHPA CLASSIFICATION A few speciﬁc comments regarding the American Herbal Products Association (AHP). Although Ilike the way they handled some perplexing little details, such as idiosyncratic allergies, trivialquantities of toxic substances, etc., I’m a little alarmed by their ‘Class 1’ deﬁnition. Why alarmed?Because I feel that all drugs, whether they be synthetic, phytochemical, nutritional, or herbal, “canbe safely consumed when used appropriately.”Class 1: Can be safely consumed if used appropriately.Class 2: Herbs with the following use restrictions apply; unless otherwise directed by anexpert qualiﬁed in the use of the substance🙁2a) External use only(2b) Not for use in pregnancy(2c) Not for use while nursing(2d) Other restrictions as notedClass 3: Herbs with signiﬁcant data suggesting labeling: “To be used only under the super-vision of an expert qualiﬁed in the appropriate use of this substance.” Labeling mustinclude proper use information: dosage, contraindications, potential adverse effects anddrug interactions, and other information pertinent to the safe use of the substance.Class 4: Herbs with data insufﬁcient for classiﬁcation.Why don’t I like that ‘Class 1’ deﬁnition? My interpretation of ‘Class 1’ deﬁnition is thatall herbs are ‘Class 1’ and can be safely used if used appropriately (appropriate is safe). Similarly,I think we could say appropriately for many, if not most, herbs what AHPA says of labelinginformation that should be required for aloe, “Do not use this product if you have abdominalpain or diarrhea. Consult a health care provider prior to use if you are pregnant or nursing.Discontinue use in the event of diarrhea or watery stools. Do not exceed recommended dose.Not for long term use.” (AHP, 1997)A subset of American phytomedicine advocates argue that we should emulate the GermanCommission E’s Standard of Excellence. Which one? Two versions came out in 1998, purportingto be authentic English presentations of the Commission E conclusions. There were some differ-ences; e.g., Blumenthal’s very careful book (identiﬁed as KOM in this book) states that hyssop isunapproved by Commission E, while Gruenwald, in the second edition of the PDR for HerbalMedicine , says hyssop is approved for colds, fevers, and gallbladder and liver complaints. In thetitle line, where I evaluate safety, I scored hyssop with three pluses (+++), meaning that I think itis safer than coffee as an herbal medicine. As to efﬁcacy, I had decided to let Commission Eendorsement rank 2 in my Activities and Indications columns.This example of divergence between the published “Commission E” interpretations ofhyssop (and there are more than ten English interpretations of Commission E now) is just oneof many that I encountered as I traversed most of these interpretations. It really raises a seriousquestion again that I raised for myself back in the early 1980s as I was working on my MedicinalPlants of China . Clearly, I was capable of working only with the English translations of Chinesebooks on medicinal plants, embellished by three trips to China. I assumed that by the time Ihad compiled most of the information from ﬁve different books, there would be little newinformation as I traversed the sixth. But diminishing returns had not yet set in. There are a fewmajor discrepancies in recent translations of romance language, scientiﬁc German, as withCommission E. How many more can we expect in translations of ancient Chinese, Hindu, and
Sanscrit writings that are thousands of years old? Small wonder we often encounter differencesof opinion.One can only be thankful that these books have survived because they document millenniaof empirical wisdom. The best of the herbal medicines have survived and the worst have beenmarginalized. That took thousands of years. You can almost say the same of pharmaceuticals:some have survived, while some of the worst have been marginalized or withdrawn. But noneof the pharmaceuticals have survived more than 200 years with us. But the 140 herbsmentioned in the Bible have been with us 2000 years. A recent study showed that humanshave been active in the Biblical area for at least 1,700,000 years. So, the genes of some humanshave experienced many of the phytochemicals from Biblical plants for nearly 2 million years.More new synthetics hit the market each year, to your peril, but few new herbs surface in agiven year. Mankind does not want bad medicine. Man empirically selects the good and rejectsthe bad. I feel strongly that many of the herbs treated in this book are as good as the competingsynthetic pharmaceuticals, and almost always cost less, in dollars and in side effects. Untilthe better of these herbs have been clinically compared with the pharmaceuticals, neither yourphysician nor mine, nor you nor I, knows for sure which is best. Meanwhile, pharmaceuticalswill kill more than 100,000 Americans a year, as per JAMA , a propharmaceutical journal, whileherbs will kill fewer than 100, as per the conservative Washington Post in an antiherb article(Gugliotta, March 19, 2000). On May 1, 2002, the Journal of the American Medical Association ( JAMA ) suggested that adverse drug reactions may be the leading cause of death in the UnitedStates. FORMAT SYNONYM: In some cases I list one or more taxonomic synonyms often following the USDANomenclature database, curated by John Wiersema http://www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/tax/taxgenform.html. ACTIVITIES: Most of the published biological activities that crossed my desk are listedalphabetically, with each activity followed by the “f” or numerical score for efﬁcacy, followed bythe citation for the source. INDICATIONS: Most published indications that crossed my desk are listed alphabetically,with each indication followed by the “f” or numerical score for efﬁcacy, followed by thecitation for the source. It was with some trepidation that I converted more speciﬁc terms suchas arthritis to arthrosis, and bronchitis to bronchosis, but I think that was a more economical(space-wise) way of presenting the data. Classically, the sufﬁx “itis” means inﬂammation, and“osis” means ailment of. Thus, arthritis is inﬂammation of the joint, and arthrosis is broader,meaning an ailment in the joint. Where some author just said “for joint problems,” that became“arthrosis,” but where they were more speciﬁc and said inﬂammation of the joint, it meansthe more speciﬁc “arthritis.” Toward the end we aggregated both under “arthrosis.” Manypeople will dislike that I converted all the more speciﬁc -itis entries to -osis, rather thansomewhat redundantly include both. DOSAGE: I have attempted in this edition to give the range of published dosage ranges I haveencountered. With good editorial prodding, I have gone back to my sources to see if they speciﬁedwhich plant part. In some cases my sources were not speciﬁc as to plant part. And sometimes onesource speciﬁed one part, another source identiﬁed another part. A few dosages were taken rightoff the bottles of herbs. If there are dangerous published dosages given under dangerous herbs, Ihave indicated with an “X” that it should not be taken except with a skilled practitioner on hand.None of the dosages originate with me (except for an occasional “food farmacy” comment,indicating that the herb is eaten as food); they are from the literature, as indicated by the usual setof abbreviations. Several do, however, represent dosages said to have been approved by CommissionE, especially those cited with the abbreviations KOM, PHR, and PH2. I suppose by appearing in
an American Pharmaceutical Book, there is an indirect assumption that APA approves those APAdata, but I am not sure they would give such approval. CONTRAINDICATIONS, INTERACTIONS, AND SIDE EFFECTS: The scores of AHP,PHR, and PH2 are cited followed by some of the reported perils of the herbs, indicated by theusual three-letter or abstract citations giving the source of the warning regarding the “peril.” EXTRACTS: More than 20 years ago, I started a phytochemical database that gives manyof the published activities of the bioactive phytochemicals. I regret at that time I had no systematicapproach to scoring the activities of the extracts of the plants. That is what we usually take,rather than isolated phytochemicals. So, occasionally, too late, I have included some reports onactivities (and ED50’s and LD50’s where available) on various extracts of the plants. We haveat the last minute deleted the repetition of the extensive data found in my updated FNF phy-tochemical database, early versions of which were published in some of my previously publishedCRC books.Duke, J.A. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents in GRAS Herbs and other EconomicPlants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1992.Duke, J.A. Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and Their Activities. CRC Press,Boca Raton, FL, 1992.Beckstrom-Sternberg, S. and Duke, J.A. Handbook of Mints (Aromathematics): Phytochem-icals and Biological Activities . CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1996.Where I found no signiﬁcant information for any one format section, the headings were deleted,therefore, many entries will have only e.g., Activities and Indications.Readers who wish to know more about the individual phytochemicals occurring in a given herbcan ﬁnd many useful queries answerable on my USDA database: www.ars-grin.gov/duke.In one particularly useful query for a person trying to rationalize the utility of an herb, one cansecure a list of all the phytochemicals reported from the plant, with or without the list of all theirreported activities, even calling out a primary or secondary reference for each data bit. Printouts ofsuch queries on the better-studied plants are often dozens of pages long, and impractical to publishin this edition. It becomes increasingly clear that there are hundreds of biologically active compounds,often additive or synergistic, in all our plants, foods, spices, herbs; medicinal and poisonous plantsalike. The genes directing the thousands of chemicals in our own body have coevolved with all ormany of the phytochemicals in most of the edible plants that our ancestors chose to eat and themedicinal plants with which they treated themselves. My genes have probably known thousands ofphytochemicals now extant in the Rift Valley (where anthropologists speculate that humans evolvedsome 6 million years ago), and still extant in my American herbs. I feel that homeostatic mechanismshave evolved for these long-known phytochemicals, enabling the body to grab a needed chemical inwhich the body is temporarily deﬁcient and, conversely, excluding perhaps as “expensive” urine, thosephytochemicals in which the body is not deﬁcient. Yes, I even agree with “supplement-bashers,” whocharge that excess vitamins are often excreted, unused, in the “expensive” urine. I am inclined todisagree if the basher suggests that most of us are not deﬁcient in one vitamin or another. I think themajority of, if not all, Americans are deﬁcient in one or more vitamins that occur in dietary plantsources. Only within the last decade did we ﬁnally realize that choline was essential. I think moresuch knowledge will surface in the decades ahead. And we will learn that such common and usefulphytochemicals as oleanolic acid, procyanidins, quercetin, resveratrol, and sitosterol are often neededby the body and, like vitamins, kept within bounds by homeostatic mechanisms. When you offer yourbody an herbal menu of hundreds of useful synergistic phytochemicals, your body may select thoseit needs most, rejecting the ones least needed or not needed at all. When you offer the body an isolatedphytochemical or synthetic pharmaceutical “silver bullet,” you are excluding all those hundreds ofother useful phytochemicals in the edible and medicinal herbs. Your body knows better than yourpharmacist or physician or phytotherapist or shaman, which chemicals it needs. And your evolutionary
diet will often provide chemicals in which you may be temporarily deﬁcient. Your evolutionary dietincluded a wide variety of plant materials that are no longer generally consumed. And your body, ifnot your brain, will recognize a positive beneﬁt therefrom. The safer herbs will prevail, in spite ofmounting published efforts to make them seem more dangerous than the pharmaceuticals. Herbs, onaverage, are much cheaper and safer than pharmaceuticals, and often as efﬁcacious. ILLUSTRATIONS: Mrs. Peggy Duke, my most vociferous critic, has generously rounded upnearly 250 black-and-white illustrations and several color plates bearing her copyright. This is asubstantial improvement over the ﬁrst edition. Peggy’s black-and-white illustrations are locatedwith the herb under discussion. Thanks to the benevolence of Natures Herbs, A Twinlab Division,we are able to include 150 color plates of most of the popularly marketed herbs in the U.S. Wegive special thanks to Grace Lyn Rich and Steve Welling for making this possible.I hope the second edition of the
will help patients and physiciansalike to use the safer herbs even more safely and wisely, and help steer them to the safer herbalalternatives and away from some of the more dangerous pharmaceutical alternatives. James A. Duke
Acknowledgments Although this second edition is clearly the work of many people, I use I in the introduction, andacknowledgment and often in the text. There is no shorter, less ambiguous word in the world thanthe word “I.” I could have said “the author” or “the authors” instead of “I” or “we” and reallyintroduced ambiguities, but my coauthors don’t share all my views, so the buck stops here. Iacknowledge with deep gratitude and with apologies, my coauthors: Mary Jo Bogenschutz-Godwin,who has worked with me more than a decade, rewriting from my terrible sows-ear drafts to producethe proverbial silk purse; Judi duCellier, who has worked with me 25 years and survived theevolution of my creeping dyslexia; Peggy-Ann Kessler Duke, friend for nearly 50 years and wifefor more than 40; botanical illustrator par excellence, whose more than 300 illustrations are worthmore than my 300,000 words; and to CRC Press publisher, Barbara Norwitz, who for more than5 years has seen me slip and slide in and out of proposed contracts to do this second edition. Tothese praiseworthy women accrue all the compliments for this massive volume. The errors are mine.All science books are built on what has gone before, hopefully seizing the best and discardingthe worst. It’s not plagiarism if one cites one’s sources. I am deeply indebted to all those scientiﬁcwriters with and before me, who have written about phytochemicals and phytopharmacy; and toour ancestors before them, who sampled the plants around them, and learned which were edible,medicinal, and poisonous, and who lived to talk about it.Also let me acknowledge you, my readers, for struggling with this, my most ponderous,yet I hope most useful, book. If you like it and ﬁnd any errors, let me know. I hope to keepit updated on my computer at home. Then maybe Barbara and CRC Press, maybe even you,will be ready for a third edition. New scientiﬁc data are pouring in, hopefully proving meright, that herbal phytochemicals are cheaper and safer, on average, and often as efﬁcacious,as competitive pharmaceuticals. James A. Duke
The Author James A. “Jim” Duke, Ph.D., is a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of the University of North Carolina,where he received his Ph.D. in Botany. He then moved on to postdoctoral activities at WashingtonUniversity and the Missouri Botanical Gardens in St. Louis, Missouri, where he assumed professorand curator duties, respectively. He retired from the United States Department of Agriculture(USDA) in 1995 after a 35-year career there and elsewhere as an economic botanist. After retiring,he was appointed Senior Scientiﬁc Consultant to Nature’s Herbs (A Twin Labs subsidiary), and toan online company, ALLHERB.COM. He currently teaches a master’s degree course in botanicalhealing at the Tai Sophia Institute in Columbia, Maryland.Dr. Duke spends time exploring the ecology and culture of the Amazonian Rain Forest and sitson the board of directors and advisory councils of numerous organizations involved in plantmedicine and the rainforest. He is updating several of his published books and reﬁning his onlinedatabase, http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/, still maintained at the USDA. He is also expanding hisprivate educational Green Farmacy Garden at his residence in Fulton, Maryland.
Abbreviations Full reference citations are listed in the References section. Many of our primary reference citationsfollow the consistent system (abbreviation, volume, page) format developed in my CRC Handbookof Biological Activities. These are more meaningful to us, the compilers, than the PMID abstractnumber (e.g., EB, or JE, or PR followed by a number then a colon then another number, alwaysmeans Economic Botany, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, or Journal of Phytotherapy Research, respectively, followed by the volume number:page number).The major references in this edition are indicated by concise and consistent three-letter abbre-viations. The short explanation in the alphabetical sequence for the often-used three-letter abbre-viations for our major references appear in the Reference Abbreviations section. Many primarysources are often cited via the PMID index, which is indicated by an X, followed directly by thePubMed serial number. Even for the $3000 worth of journals to which I subscribe, I can usuallyﬁnd the PubMed citation in the same week that the journal gets my citation.Conventional abbreviations appear here. Three types of citations, compactly squeezed into theall important Activities and Indications paragraphs, are generously sprinkled elsewhere. ABS abstract ACAT Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltrans-ferase ACE angiotensin converting enzyme AChE antiacetylcholinesterase ADD attention deﬁcit disorder AFG in Afghanistan, as based on KAB AHH arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase AHP American Herbal Products Associa-tion AIL Duke’s computerized AILS ﬁle, sourceof The Green Pharmacy , etc.; soonto be online ALA alpha-linolenic acid AMP adenosine monophosphate APA American Pharmaceutical Association APB as-purchased basis ARC Aloe Research Council ATP adenosine triphosphate BAL Baluchistan, as based on KAB BO body odor BPC British Pharmacopoeia BPH benign prostatic hypertrophy cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate cf compare with CFS chronic fatigue syndrome CHD coronary heart disease chd child ckn chicken CNS central nervous system COM commercial COMT catechol-O-methyl-transferase COPD chronic obsessive pulmonary disorder CORP corporation COX cyclooxygenase COX-I cyclooxygenase inhibitor (sometimes COX-1 or COX-2) COX-2-1 COX-2-inhibitor CVI chronic venous insufﬁciency DGL deglycyrrhizinated licorice DHT dihydrotestosterone DMBA 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (a carcinogen) dml dermal EBV Epstein-Barr virus ED50 effective dose at which 50% of sub-jects are “cured,” “effected,”“affected,” or “altered” e.g. for example EO essential oil EPA eicosapentaenoic acid EPO Evening Primrose oilERT estrogen replacement therapyetc. et ceteraext extractf folklore, not yet substantiatedfrg frog
g gramGA glycyrrhetinic acidGABA gamma-amino-butyric acidGC Garcinia cambogiaGERD gastroesophageal reﬂux diseaseGFG green farmacy gardenGI gastrointestinalGLA gamma-linolenic acidGMO genetically modiﬁed organismgpg guinea pigGTF glucosyl-transferaseh (as a score for an activity or indication)homeopathicHCA hydroxycitric acidHCN hydrocyanic acidHDR Herbal Desk Reference; online ver-sion under my Medical Botany Syl-labus (MBS)HFR human fatality reportedHLE human leukocyte elastaseHMG hydroxymethylglutaratehmn humanHRT hormone replacement therapyiar intraarterialIBD inﬂammatory bowel diseaseIBS irritable bowel syndromeIC inhibitory concentrationICMR Indian Council of Medical Research ID50 inhibitory dose at which 50% of activ-ity is inhibitedIgE immunoglobulin-Eigs intragastricihl inhalationIL interleukinims intramuscularinc incorporatedind intradermalinf infusionipr intraperitonealith intrathecalivn intravenousLD50 lethal dose at which 50% of experi-mental population is killedLDlo lowest reported lethal doself leafl literMAOI monoamine oxidase inhibitorMDR multidrug resistantmg milligramMIC used differently by various sources;minimum inhibiting concentration ormean inhibiting concentrationmky monkeyml milliliterMLD used differently by various sources;Merck meaning minimum lethaldose; some other sources meaningmean lethal dose, and some do notdeﬁne it (with apologies to the readerfrom the compiler)mM millimoleMMP-9 matrix metalloproteinase-9mus mouseNH3 ammoniaNIDDM noninsulin-dependent diabetesmellitusNKC natural killer cellNO nitric oxideNWP Northwest Province or Pushtu (dia-lect at border of northwesternAfghanistan)OCD obsessive compulsive disorder ODC ornithine-decarboxylaseOPC oligomeric procyanidinORAC oxygen radical absorbance capacityorl oralOTC over the counter (or approved for salein Europe)oz ouncePA pyrrolizidine alkaloidsPAF platelet aggregating factorpar parenteralpc personal communicationPEITC phenethylisothiocyanatepers. comm. personal communicationPG prostaglandinpgn pigeonPKC protein kinase CPMS premenstrual syndromepp pagesppm parts per millionPSA prostate-speciﬁc antigenPTK protein tyrosine kinaserbt rabbitRSV respiratory syncytial virusRT reverse transcriptaseSAD seasonal affective disorderSAM S-adenosylmethioninescu subcutaneous
SF Stephen FosterSGPT serum glutamic pyruvic transaminaseSL sesquiterpene lactonesSLE systemic lupus erythematosusSN serial number (when followed by anumber)SOD superoxide dismutaseSSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitorsup suppositoryTAM traditional Ayurvedic medicinetbsp tablespoonTCM traditional Chinese medicineTHC tetrahydrocannabinolTNF tumor necrosis factortsp teaspoonunk unknownuns unspeciﬁedUTI urinary tract infectionUV ultravioletVD venereal diseaseVEGF vascular endothelial growth factorVOD veno-occlusive diseaseVol volumewmn womanWPW Wolff-Parkinson-White (syndrome)X solitary X in the title line of the herbfollowing the scientiﬁc name meansdo not take it without advice from anexpert (think of it as a skull andcross-bones)X followed by serial number PMID(PubMed ID number)XO external use onlyZMB zero moisture basisµg microgramµl microliterµM micromole
ContentsCatalog of Herbs (A to Z) .1Reference Abbreviations 815References 821Illustration Credits 829Scientiﬁc Name Index 831Common Name Index 843
1AAABSCESS ROOT (Polemonium reptans L.) +Activities (Abscess Root) — Alterative (f; EFS); Antipyretic (f; EFS); Astringent (1; PH2);Diaphoretic (1; EFS; PH2); Expectorant (1; EFS; PH2).Indications (Abscess Root) — Fever (f; EFS; PH2); Inﬂammation (f; PH2).Dosages (Abscess Root) — No real dosage given (PH2).Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Abscess Root) — Not covered (AHP; KOM).ACACIA, BABUL (Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile) ++Synonym — Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd.Activities (Acacia) — Alexeteric (f; KAB); Algicide (1; ZUL); Amebicide (1; ZUL); Antibacterial(1; ZUL); Antiedemic (1; ABS); Antihistaminic (1; ZUL); Antiinﬂammatory (f; ABS); Antitussive(f; BIB); Aphrodisiac (f; MPI; ZUL); Astringent (f; GMH; PH2); Decongestant (f; BIB); Demulcent(f; BIB; DEP); Expectorant (f; KAB; MPI); Hemostat (f; DEP); Hepatotonic (f; KAB); Hypogly-cemic (1; ZUL); Hypotensive (1; ZUL); Lactagogue (f; BIB; UPW); Molluscicide (1; ZUL);Neurostimulant (f; BIB); Protisticide (1; ZUL); Stimulant (f; BIB); Taenicide (1; ZUL); Teratologic(f; ZUL); Tonic (f; DEP); Vermifuge (1; KAB; ZUL).Indications (Acacia) — Ameba (1; ZUL); Ascites (f; KAB); Bacteria (1; ZUL); Biliousness (f; KAB);Bleeding (f; BIB; DEP); Bronchosis (f; KAB); Burn (f; SKJ); Cancer (f; BIB); Cancer, ear (f; JLH);Cancer, eye (f; JLH); Cancer, liver (f; JLH); Cancer, spleen (f; JLH); Cancer, testes (f; JLH); Catarrh(f; HH2); Childbirth (f; DEP); Chill (f; ZUL); Cholecystosis (f; BIB); Cholera (f; SKJ); Colic (f; KAB);Condyloma (f; BIB); Congestion (f; BIB); Conjunctivosis (f; DEP); Cough (f; DEP; KAB); Cystosis(f; DEP); Diabetes (1; DEP; ZUL); Diarrhea (f; GMH; PH2); Dysentery (f; BIB; DEP); Dyspepsia (f;ZUL); Dysuria (f; KAB); Enterosis (f; DEP); Fever (f; BIB; UPW); Flu (1; ABS); Fracture (f; KAB);Gastrosis (f; DEP); Gingivosis (f; DEP; PH2); Gonorrhea (1; DEP; ZUL); Hemorrhoid (f; BIB; KAB;PH2); Hepatosis (f; BIB); High Blood Pressure (1; ZUL); Hyperglycemia (1; ZUL); Hypersalivation(f; DEP); Induration (f; BIB; JLH); Infection (1; ZUL); Inﬂammation (1; ABS; PH2); Insanity (f;KAB); Leprosy (f; KAB); Leukoderma (f; KAB); Leukorrhea (f; DEP); Menorrhagia (f; DEP); Muco-sosis (f; PH2); Odontosis (f; PNC); Ophthalmia (f; BIB; JLH); Orchosis (f; BIB); Otosis (f; BIB; JLH);Pharyngosis (f; PH2); Pneumonia (f; ZUL); Proctosis (f; DEP; UPW); Puerperium (f; DEP); Pulmono-sis (f; ZUL); Sclerosis (f; BIB); Smallpox (f; BIB); Snakebite (f; DEP); Sore (f; DEP; UPW); SoreThroat (f; DEP); Splenosis (f; JLH); Staphylococcus (f; ZUL); Stomachache (f; UPW); Stomatosis (f;DEP; PH2; UPW); Strangury (f; KAB); Swelling (1; ABS); Syphilis (f; BIB); Tapeworm (1; ZUL);Toothache (f; ZUL); Tuberculosis (f; BIB); Typhoid (f; BIB); Urethrosis (f; KAB); Uterosis (f; DEP;KAB); Vaginosis (f; KAB; PH2); VD (f; DEP); Worm (1; KAB; ZUL); Wound (f; UPW).Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Acacia) — None covered (AHP; KOM). Largeinternal doses may lead to constipation and dyspepsia (PH2).
AADAM’S NEEDLES, SPANISH BAYONET (Yucca ﬁlamentosa L.) ++Few taxonomists and herbalists and even fewer pharmacists and physicians can distinguish theYucca species in the ﬁeld. How then can they distinguish them ground and powdered in the capsule?APA covers also Yucca brevifolia, Y. glauca, and Y. schidigera.Activities (Adam’s Needles) — Antiarthritic (1; APA); Antiherpetic (1; APA); Antiinﬂammatory(f; WOI); Antimelanomic (1; APA); Antitumor (1; APA); Antiviral (1; APA); Hemolytic (1; APA);Piscicide (2; DEM; FAD); Sedative (f; DEM).Indications (Adam’s Needles) — Adenopathy (f; WOI); Arthrosis (1; APA); Biliousness (f; WOI);Bleeding (f; APA); Cholecystosis (f; PHR; PH2); Cytomegalovirus (1; APA); Depression (f; WOI);Dermatosis (f; APA; DEM; FAD); Diabetes (f; DEM); Gonorrhea (f; WOI); Headache (1; APA;WOI); Hepatosis (f; PHR; PH2); Herpes (1; APA); High Blood Pressure (1; APA); High Cholesterol(1; APA); Inﬂammation (f; APA; WOI); Insomnia (f; DEM); Melanoma (1; APA); Migraine (f;APA); Nervousness (f; DEM); Pain (1; APA); Rheumatism (1; APA; WOI); Sore (f; APA; DEM;FAD); Sprain (f; DEM; FAD); Stomatosis (f; WOI); Swelling (1; APA); Tumor (1; APA); VD (f;WOI); Virus (1; APA).Dosages (Adam’s Needles) — 3 (490 mg) capsules 3 ×/day (APA).Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Adam’s Needles) — AHP classiﬁes four otherYuccas as Class 1. “Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2).(but PH2 designates no speciﬁc quantiﬁed dosage! JAD). Root compounds toxic to lower life forms(FAD). Saponins can cause gastric discomfort (PHR).AFRICAN CAPER (Capparis tomentosa Lam.) +Activities (African Caper) — Antispasmodic (1; VVG); Decongestant (f; ZUL); Depurative(f; ZUL); Diuretic (f; ZUL); Emetic (f; ZUL); Expectorant (f; ZUL); Philtre (f; ZUL); Tonic(f; ZUL).Indications (African Caper) — Chest Ache (f; VVG; ZUL); Cough (f; VVG; ZUL); Cramp (1;VVG); Diarrhea (f; ZUL); Fever (f; ZUL); Gastrosis (f; ZUL); Gonorrhea (f; ZUL); Headache(f; VVG; ZUL); Impotence (f; ZUL); Infertility (f; ZUL); Insanity (f; VVG; ZUL); Jaundice (f;VVG; ZUL); Leprosy (f; ZUL); Malaria (f; VVG; ZUL); Mastosis (f; ZUL); Miscarriage (f;ZUL); Ophthalmia (f; ZUL); Pleurisy (f; ZUL); Pneumonia (f; VVG); Rheumatism (f; VVG);Scrofula (f; ZUL); Snakebite (f; VVG; ZUL); Swelling (f; ZUL); Water Retention (f; ZUL);Wound (f; ZUL).Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (African Caper) — In view of reportedpoisonings, indiscriminate use is discouraged (VVG); human fatalities reported following rootingestion. Contains stachydrine (ZUL).AFRICAN QUININE, QUININE TREE (Rauvolﬁa caffra Sond.) +Activities (African Quinine) — Antipyretic (f; ZUL); Depurative (f; ZUL); Diuretic (f; ZUL);Emetic (f; ZUL); Larvicide (f; ZUL); Laxative (f; ZUL); Tranquilizer (f; ZUL).Indications (African Quinine) — Enterosis (f; ZUL); Fever (f; ZUL); Itch (f; ZUL); Maggot (f;ZUL); Malaria (f; ZUL); Measles (f; ZUL); Nervousness (f; ZUL); Pneumonia (f; ZUL); Rheu-matism (f; ZUL); Scrofula (f; ZUL); Swelling (f; ZUL); Water Retention (f; ZUL); Wound (f; ZUL).Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (African Quinine) — Poisonous (ZUL).
3AAFRICAN SPURGE (Euphorbia resinifera O. Berg & C. F. Schmidt) XActivities (African Spurge) — Abortifacient (f; PH2); Carcinogenic (1; PH2); Emetic (1; PH2);Immunostimulant (1; PH2); Irritant (1; PH2); Laxative (1; EFS; PH2); Rubefacient (f; EFS);Sialagogue (f; PH2); Toxic (f; EFS); Vesicant (f; EFS).Indications (African Spurge) — Bronchosis (f; HHB); Cancer (f; JLH; PH2); Catarrh (f;HHB); Conjunctivosis (f; HHB; PH2); Constipation (f; PH2); Dermatosis (f; PH2); Diarrhea(f; HHB); Dropsy (f; PH2); Dysmenorrhea (f; PH2); Epistaxis (f; HHB); Gout (f; PH2);Headache (f; PH2); Immunodepression (1; PH2); Infection (f; PH2); Inﬂammation (f; PH2);Otosis (f; PH2); Plantar Wart (f; JLH); Respirosis (f; PH2); Sore (f; PH2); Ulcer (f; PH2);Wart (f; PH2).Dosages (African Spurge) — Don’t take it (JAD).Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (African Spurge) — Not covered (AHP).Topically very irritating. Ingestion can cause death, burning gastrosis, colic, diarrhea, nephrosis,salivation (PH2).AFRICAN WILD YAM (Dioscorea dregeana (Kunth) T. Durand & Schinz) +Activities (African Wild Yam) — Avicide (f; ZUL); Hemolytic (1; ZUL); Intoxicant (f; ZUL);Narcotic (f; ZUL); Soporiﬁc (f; ZUL).Indications (African Wild Yam) — Childbirth (f; ZUL); Convulsion (f; VVG); Cramp (f; ZUL);Epilepsy (f; VVG); Fit (f; VVG; ZUL); Hysteria (f; ZUL); Insanity (f; ZUL); Nervousness (f; ZUL);Scabies (f; VVG); Sore (f; ZUL); Wound (f; ZUL).AFRICAN WORMWOOD (Artemisia afra Jacq.) +Activities (African Wormwood) — Analgesic (1; VVG; ZUL); Analeptic (1; VVG); Antibacterial(1; VVG); Antihistaminic (1; ZUL); Antiinﬂammatory (1; VVG); Antiitch (1; VVG); Antiseptic (1;VVG); Carminative (1; VVG); Decongestant (f; VVG); Depurative (f; ZUL); Emetic (f; VVG);Narcotic (1; VVG; ZUL); Stimulant (1; VVG).Indications (African Wormwood) — Acne (1; ZUL); Anorexia (f; VVG; ZUL); Bacteria (1;VVG); Boil (1; ZUL); Cardiopathy (1; VVG); Childbirth (f; ZUL); Chill (f; ZUL); Cold (1; VVG;ZUL); Colic (f; ZUL); Constipation (1; ZUL); Croup (f; ZUL); Diabetes (f; ZUL); Dyspepsia (f;ZUL); Enterosis (f; ZUL); Fever (1; VVG; ZUL); Flu (f; VVG); Gas (1; VVG); Gastrosis (f; ZUL);Gout (f; ZUL); Headache (f; VVG); Hemorrhoid (f; ZUL); Inﬂammation (1; VVG); Itch (1; VVG);Malaria (1; VVG; ZUL); Measles (f; ZUL); Mumps (f; ZUL); Otosis (f; VVG; ZUL); Pain (1;VVG; ZUL); Pertussis (f; ZUL); Pneumonia (1; VVG; ZUL); Sore Throat (f; ZUL); Sprain (f;ZUL); Toothache (f; ZUL); Worm (1; VVG; ZUL).Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (African Wormwood) — One tbsp EO (essen-tial oil) severely poisoned a worker, similar to thujone poisoning (ZUL).AGA, FLY AGARIC (Amanita muscaria) XActivities (Aga) — GABA-Antagonist (1; PH2); Hallucinogen (1; PH2); Paralytic (1; PH2);Psychotropic (1; PH2); Stimulant (1; PH2); Toxic (1; PH2).
AIndications (Aga) — Anxiety (f; PH2); Arthrosis (f; PH2); Intoxication (f; PH2); Neuralgia (f;PH2); Pain (f; PH2).Dosages (Aga) — Don’t take it (JAD).Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Aga) — Signs of intoxication includeconfusion, cramps, dizziness, enteralgia, mania, psychostimulation, then sedation vomiting(PH2).AGAR (Gelidium amansii) ++Activities (Agar) — Laxative (1; PH2); Peristaltic (1; PH2).Indications (Agar) — Constipation (1; PH2).Dosages (Agar) — 4–16 g 1–2 ×/day (AHP); 4–16 g in 1–4 doses (HHB); 1–2 tsp powdered agar,always with liquid, 1–3 ×/day (PH2).Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Agar) — Class 2d. Take with at least 250ml (8 oz liquid); contraindicated in bowel obstruction (AHP). “Hazards and/or side effects notknown for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2).AGRIMONY (Agrimonia eupatoria L.) ++Activities (Agrimony) — Aggregant (1; CRC; PH2; ZUL); Antibacterial (1; FNF); Antidiabetic(1; APA); Antiinﬂammatory (1; BIS); Antipyretic (1; CRC); Antiseptic (1; APA); Astringent(2; APA; KOM); Antiviral (1; APA; PNC); Candidicide (1; APA); Cholagogue (1; PNC);Depurative (f; CRC); Diuretic (1; PNC); Emmenagogue (f; CRC); Fungicide (1; APA); Hemo-stat (1; PH2); Hypoglycemic (1; APA); Litholytic (f; CRC); Sedative (f; CRC); Stomachic (f;WBB); Tonic (1; APA; CRC; PNC); Uricolytic (1; CAN); Vermifuge (1; CRC; WBB; ZUL);Vulnerary (f; CRC).Indications (Agrimony) — Acne (f; CRC); Anthrax (f; WBB; ZUL); Asthma (f; CRC); Bacteria(1; FNF; ZUL); Bile (f; ZUL); Bleeding (1; CRC; PH2; ZUL); Bronchosis (f; CRC); Cancer (f;JLH); Cancer, bladder (f; JLH); Cancer, breast (f; JLH); Cancer, face (f; JLH); Cancer, ganglion(f; JLH); Cancer, groin (f; JLH); Cancer, joint (f; JLH); Cancer, kidney (f; JLH); Cancer, liver(f; JLH); Cancer, sinew (f; JLH); Cancer, spleen (f; JLH); Cancer, stomach (f; JLH); Cancer,uterus (f; JLH); Candida (1; APA); Carcinoma (f; JLH); Cholecystosis (f; APA); Cholelithiasis(f; ZUL); Cholestasis (f; PH2); Cold (f; CRC; WBB); Condyloma (f; CRC; JLH); Congestion(f; APA); Corn (f; CRC; JLH); Cystosis (f; JLH); Decubitis (f; CRC); Dermatosis (2; APA; CAN;KOM); Diabetes (1; APA); Diarrhea (2; APA; FAD; KOM); Dysentery (1; FNF); Dyspepsia (1;CAN; KOM); Eczema (f; PH2); Enterosis (f; CRC; PH2); Enuresis (f; PH2); Eruption (f; CRC);Fever (1; CRC; FAD); Fungus (1; APA); Gastrosis (f; CAN; KOM); Gastroduodenosis (f; CAN);Gastroenterosis (1; APA; BIS); Gout (f; CRC; FAD); Hemorrhoid (f; CRC; APA); Hematuria (1;CRC); Hepatosis (f; APA; FAD; JLH; WO3); Hyperglycemia (1; APA); Icterus (f; ZUL); Infection(1; APA); Inﬂammation (1; BIS); Insomnia (f; CRC); Jaundice (f; CRC); Kernel (f; JLH); KidneyStone (f; APA); Metrorrhagia (1; CRC); Mucososis (1; APA; PHR; PH2); Mycosis (1; APA);Nephrosis (f; JLH; PH2); Nervousness (f; CRC); Neuralgia (f; CRC); Neurosis (f; CRC);Porphyria (f; CAN); Pharyngosis (2; FAD; KOM; PHR; PH2); Psoriasis (f; PH2); Rash (1; APA);Rheumatism (f; CRC); Scirrhus (f; JLH); Sclerosis (f; CRC); Scrotum (f; CRC); Seborrhea (f;PH2); Sinew (f; CRC); Snakebite (f; CRC); Sore (1; APA; JLH); Sore Throat (1; APA; CRC);
5ASplenosis (f; CRC; JLH); Stomatosis (2; KOM; PHR); Stone (f; CRC); Tuberculosis (f; CRC;ZUL); Tumor (f; CRC); Ulcer (1; APA); Uterosis (f; JLH); Varicosis (1; APA); Virus (1; APA;PNC); Wart (f; CRC; JLH); Water Retention (1; PNC); Worm (1; CRC; FAD; PH2; WBB; ZUL);Wound (1; APA; JLH; PH2); Yeast (1; APA).Dosages (Agrimony) — 3 g herb (KOM; PHR); 3–6 g herb (APA); 1–1.5 g (BIS); 2–4 g 3 ×/day(CAN); 1 tsp herb/cup water (RFW); 1–3 ml extract (1:1 in 25% ethanol) 3 ×/day (CAN); 2–4 mlliquid herb extract (PNC); 1–4 ml tincture (1:5) in 45% alcohol 3 ×/day (CAN).Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Agrimony) — Class 1 (AHP). Noneknown (Kom; PHR). “Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages”(PH2). Excessive doses may interact with anticoagulant, hypotensive, and hypertensive thera-pies. As with other tannin-rich herbs, “excessive use” should be avoided. In view of the lackof toxicity data, use of agrimony should be avoided during pregnancy and lactation. Reportedlyaffects the menstrual cycle (CAN). Extracts (Agrimony) — Uricolytic activity demonstrated for 15% infusions ED = 20 ml/kg orlrat (equivalent to 3 g dry drug); hypotensive (ivn cat); bactericidal against Staphylococcus andStreptococcus. The tannin constituent agrimoniin (from A. pilosa) has antitumor activity, perhapsvia immunostimulant activity (CAN). Aqueous extracts inhibited Mycobacterium tuberculosis, invitro, and ethanolic extracts show antiviral activity (PNC). Twenty cutaneous porphyria patientssuccessfully treated with agrimony infusions. Chinese research indicates agrimony increases bloodcoagulability 50% (CAN).AIR PLANT, TREE OF LIFE (Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken) +Synonym — Kalanchoe pinnata Pers.Activities (Air Plant) — Analgesic (1; TRA); Antiaggregant (1; TRA); Antibacterial (1; TRA);Anticancer (1; AAB); Antiedemic (1; TRA); Antiinﬂammatory (1; AAB; TRA); Antiplaque (1;TRA); Antiprostaglandin (1; TRA); Antiseptic (1; TRA); Antispasmodic (1; TRA); Antitussive (1;TRA); Choleretic (1; TRA); Cicatrizant (1; TRA); Cytotoxic (1; TRA); Diuretic (1; TRA); Emollient(f; JFM); Expectorant (f; JFM); Fungicide (1; AAB; TRA); Hemostat (f; JFM); Immunomodulator(1; TRA); Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor (1; TRA); Panacea (f; AAB); Spasmogenic (1; TRA); Vasocon-strictor (1; TRA); Vulnerary (f; JFM).Indications (Air Plant) — Athlete’s Foot (1; AAB); Bacteria (1; TRA); Bleeding (f; JFM);Boil (f; JFM); Bronchosis (f; IED); Bruise (f; AAB; JFM); Bug Bite (f; JFM); Cancer (1;AAB); Cold (f; TRA); Colitis (1; TRA); Congestion (f; JFM); Conjunctivosis (f; JFM); Cough(f; TRA); Cramp (1; TRA); Debility (f; AAB); Dermatosis (f; JFM); Dysmenorrhea (1; TRA);Dysuria (f; JFM); Enterosis (1; IED; TRA); Fever (f; IED); Flu (f; AAB); Fracture (f; IED);Fungus (1; AAB; TRA); Gonorrhea (f; JFM); Headache (f; IED; JFM; TRA); Heartburn (f;IED); Infection (1; AAB; JFM; TRA); Inﬂammation (1; AAB; TRA); Mastosis (f; AAB);Migraine (f; IED); Mycosis (1; AAB; TRA); Ophthalmia (f; JFM); Otosis (f; JFM); Pain (1;TRA); Pulmonosis (f; JFM); Sore (1; TRA); Sore Throat (f; AAB); Sprain (f; AAB); Swelling(1; AAB; TRA); Urethrosis (f; JFM); VD (f; JFM); Water Retention (1; TRA); Wound (1;AAB; TRA).Dosages (Air Plant) — 10 g leaf applied to forehead for headache (TRA).Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Air Plant) — Do not use more than 15 daysin a row. Not for pregnant, puerperal, or lactating mothers or small children (TRA).