INDEXAAbbe, Cleveland, 6, 64.Abbott, Lyman, 75, 143–145.Aberdeen, S. D., 89.Aberration of light (see Glossary,p. 313), 105–107, 111, 277.Abraham, 142.Acapulco, Mexico, 102.Acceleration (see Glossary, p. 313),289–291.Adelaide, Australia, 87.Aden (¨a0den), Arabia, 87.Africa, 102, 186, 201, 213, 218,223, 268.Akron, O., 80.Al-Mamoum, 270.Alabama, 89.Alaska, 68, 86, 89, 91, 99, 103.Albany, N. Y., 89.Albany, Tex., 244.Alberta, Canada, 81.Aleutian Is., 97.Alexandria, Egypt, 31, 82, 87, 270.Algeria, 82.Allegheny Observatory, Allegheny,Pa., 68.Allen, W. F., 66.Allowance for curvature of earth’ssurface, 227, 231, 234.Almanac, 119, 124–126, 172.Altitude, of noon sun, 12, 170–175,300.of polestar or celestial pole, 57–60, 170–175.Amazon, bores of, 188.American Practical Navigator, 217.Amsterdam, Holland, 83, 87.Analemma (see Glossary, p. 313),description of, 127.representation of, 127.uses of, 129–131, 171–175, 299.Anaximander (˘an ˘ax ˘ı m˘an0der),268.Ann Arbor, Mich., 89.Annapolis, Md., 89.Antipodal (˘an t˘ıp0¯o dal) areasmap showing, 39.Antwerp, Belgium, 87.Aphelion (see Glossary, p. 313),120, 283, 286.Apia (¨a p¯e0¨a), Samoa, 87.Apogee (see Glossary, p. 313), 178.Apsides (see Glossary, p. 313), 286.Aquarius (¨a kw¯a0r˘ı ˘us), 295.Arabia, 87.Arcturus (ark tu0rus), 54, 110.Area method of determining geoid,34, 35.Area of earth’s surface, 309.Arequipa (¨a r¯a k¯e0p¨a), Peru, 164.322
323Argentina (¨ar jen te0na), 80.Aries (˘a0r˘ı ¯ez), constellation, 293.ﬁrst point of, 293, 315.sign of zodiac, 118, 296.Aristarchus (˘ar ˘ıs t¨ar0k˘us), 274,275.Aristotle (˘ar0˘ıs tot l), 269.Arkansas (¨ar0k˘an s¨a), 89, 232.Arkansas River, 232.Armenian Church, 146.Asia, 32, 39, 186, 213.Asteroids, 49, 247, 253, 292, 313.Astronomical day, 131, 314.Athens, Greece, 40, 83, 87.Atlanta, Ga., 89.Atlantic Ocean, 186, 243.Atmosphere, 162–168.absence of, on moon, 263, 264.how heated, 167.on Jupiter, 257.on Mars, 255.on Mercury, 261.on Venus, 256.origin of, 252.Attu Island, 89, 100.Auckland, New Zealand, 98.Augusta, Me., 89.Augustan calendar, 136.Austin, Tex., 89.Australia, 39, 97, 102.Austria-Hungary, 67, 80.Axis, changes in position of, 286,287.deﬁned, 22, 313.inclination of, see Obliquity ofecliptic.parallelism of, 154.Azimuth, 301, 313.BBabinet, 207.Bacchus, 135.Bailey, S. I., 163.Balearic Is., 85.Balkan States, 140, 146.Ball’s History of Mathematics, 268.Baltimore, Md., 89.Bangor, Me., 89.Bankok, Siam, 87.Barcelona, Spain, 87.Barlow and Bryan’s MathematicalAstronomy, 291.Barometer, 162, 176.Base line, 232–235, 243, 245.Batavia, Java, 87.Behring Strait, 32.Belgium, 67, 81, 87.Beloit, Wis., 89.Benetnasch, 60.Bergen, Norway, 87.Berkeley, Calif., 88.Berlin, Germany, 87.Bessel, F. W., 30, 31, 33, 110.Bethlehem, 145.Big Dipper, 9, 47, 59, 60, 112,294.Bismarck Archipelago, 82.Bismarck, N. D., 89.Black Hills Meridian, 231.Bogota (b¯o g¯o t¨a0), Columbia, 82.Boise (boi0z¯a), Ida., 88.Bombay (b˘om b¯a0), India, 87.Bonn Observatory, 110.Bonne’s projection, 221, 224.Bordeaux (bˆor d¯o0), France, 87.Bores, tidal, 186, 188.Bosphorus, 145.Boston, Mass., 89.
324Bowditch, Nathaniel, 217.Bradley, James, 107, 277.Brahe (br¨a), Tycho, 110, 276, 277.Brazil, 88.British Columbia, 81.British Empire, 81.Brussels, Belgium, 81, 87.Budapest (boo0da pest), Hungary,85.Buenos Aires (b¯o0n˘us ¯a0r˘ız), Ar-gentina, 72, 87.Buﬀalo, N. Y., 89.Bulgaria, 67.Bulletin, U. S. G. S., 244.Burmah, 81.CCadiz (k¯a0d˘ız), Spain, 87.Caesar, Augustus, 136.Julius, 135, 139.Cairo (k¯ı0r¯o), Egypt, 82, 87.Calais, Me., 30.Calcutta, India, 87, 109.Calendar, 133–146.ancient Mexican, 142.Augustan, 136.Chaldean, 142.Chinese, 141.early Roman, 135, 139.Gregorian, 137.Jewish, 145, 189.Julian, 136, 140.Mohammedan, 141, 143–145.on moon, 262.Turkish, 143.California, 30, 33, 35, 67, 88, 89,91, 156, 169.Callao (k¨al l¨a0¯o), Peru, 85.Canada, 47, 230, 234.Cancer, constellation of, 151.sign of zodiac, 294.tropic of, 151, 268.Canterbury Tales, quoted, 118.Canton, China, 88.Cape Colony, Africa, 81.Cape Deshnef, Siberia, 97, 100.Cape Horn, 39.Cape May, N. J., 30, 33.Cape Town, Africa, 31, 72.Capricorn, constellation of, 152.sign of zodiac, 295, 297.tropic of, 152.Caracas (k¨a r¨a0k¨as), Venezuela, 87.Carleton College, Northﬁeld,Minn., 68.Carnegie Institution of Washington,34.Carolines, the, 82.Cassini (k¨as s¯e0n¯e), G. D., and J.,273.Cassiopeia (k˘as s˘ı ¯o p¯e0y˙a), 9, 59,60.Cayenne (k˘ı ˘en0), French Guiana,27, 28, 87.Celestial equator, 46, 151, 170–175,282, 293, 315.Celestial latitude, 282, 283.longitude, 282, 317.meridians, 282, 283.pole, 46, 57, 59, 170–175.sphere, 44–50, 62, 313.tropics, 151, 152, 320.Central time, in Europe, 67, 75,84–86.in the United States, 66, 70,73–75, 129.Centrifugal force (see Glossary,p. 314), 13–16, 27, 50, 278–
325282, 289, 307.Centripetal force (see Glossary,p. 314), 15.Ceres, 135.Ceylon (s¯e l˘on0), 81.Chaldeans, 134, 142, 268, 293.Chamberlin, T. C., 6, 251.Charles IX., King of France, 139.Charles V., Emperor of Spain, 215.Charleston, S. C., 89.Chatham Islands, 81, 97.Chaucer, quoted, 118.Cheyenne (sh¯ı ˘en0), Wyo., 89.Chicago, Ill., 62, 66, 89, 96, 99,130, 174, 208.Chile (ch¯e0l¯a), 81, 88.China, 81, 88, 89, 101, 164, 268.Chinese calendar, 141.zodiac, 295.Chos¨on, Land of the Morning Calm(Korea), 98.Christiania (kr˘ıs t¯e ¨a0n¯e ¨a), Nor-way, 87.Christmases, three in one year, 145.Chronograph (kr˘on0¯o graph), 68.Chronometer (kr¯o n˘om0¯e ter), 63.Cincinnati, O., 73, 89.Circle deﬁned, 20.Circle of illumination, or day circle,151, 152, 155–158.Circumference of earth, 29, 30, 309.Ciudad Juarez, see Juarez.Civil day, 131, 314.Clarke, A. R., 29–33, 36, 42, 273,308.Cleomedes (kl¯e ˘om0¯e d¯ez), 271.Cleveland, O., 73, 89.Clock, sidereal, 68, 69.Co-tidal lines, 186, 314.Collins, Henry, 101.Colombia, 82.Colon (k¯o l¯on0), Panama, 85.Color vibrations, 107.Colorado, 66, 89.Columbia, S. C, 90.Columbus, Christopher, 138, 139,213, 271.Columbus, O., 73, 89.Comets, 49, 247, 276.Compass, magnetic, or mariner’s,152, 153, 228.Concord, N. H., 90.Congressional township, 230.Conic projection, 218–225.Conjunction, 178, 184, 320.Connecticut, 89.Constantinople, Turkey, 88.Convergence of meridians, 231, 234.Copenhagen, Denmark, 88.Copernican system (see Glossary,p. 314), 275–277.Copernicus (k¯o per0n˘ı k˘us), 49, 110,274–277.Cordoba (k¯or0d¯o b ˙a), Argentina,80.Corinto (k¯o r¯en0t¯o), Nicaragua, 84.Correction line, 235.Cosines, natural, table of, 310.Costa Rica, 82.Cotangents, natural, table of, 311.Crepusculum, the, 165.Creston, Iowa, 79.Cuba, 68, 82, 88.Curvature of surface of earth, rateof, 26, 41, 42, 227, 234.Cygnus (s˘ıg0n˘us; plural and pos-sessive singular, cygni), 110.Cylindrical projection, 210–218,
326225.DDakotas, division of, 235.Danish West Indies, 82.Date line, see International dateline.Day (see Glossary, p. 314), astro-nomical, 131.circle, see Circle of illumination.civil, 131.length of, 155–159.lunar, 187.sidereal, 115, 131.solar, 61, 115, 131.total duration of a, 99.week, 143.De la Hire, Phillippe (f¯e l¯ep0d˙e l˙a ¯er0), 201.Deadwood, S. D., 90.Declination (see Glossary, p. 314),125, 127, 171–175, 283.Deimos (d˘ı0mus), 255.Denmark, 67, 82, 88, 137.Density of earth, 309.Density, formula for, 308.Denver, Col., 25, 26, 66, 90, 98.Des Moines (de moin0), Iowa, 89.Deshnef, Cape, 97, 100.Detroit, Mich., 62, 72, 90.Deviation, of pendulum, 53–56.of plumb line, 280–282.Dewey, George, 104.Diameter of earth, 28–30, 44, 308.Dimensions of earth, 308.Dip of horizon, (see Glossary,p. 316).Distances, of planets, 266, 309.of stars, 44, 247.District of Columbia, 76, 91, 125.Diurnal (d¯ı ˆur0nal), motion ofearth, see Rotation.Division of Dakotas, 235.Dryer, Charles R., 6.Dublin, Ireland, 63, 81, 88.Duluth, Minn., 90.EEarth in Space, 247–266.Earth’s dimensions, 308.Eastern time, in Europe, 67, 86.in the United States, 66, 70, 74,76.Eastward deﬂection of falling ob-jects, 50–54.Eclipse, 23, 117, 162, 178.Ecliptic (see Glossary, p. 315), 116,120, 282, 285.obliquity of, 119, 148, 286, 309.Edinburgh (˘ed0˘ın b˘ur r¯o), Scotland,87.Egypt, 82, 87, 134, 268.El Castillo (˘el k¨as t¯el0y¯o),Nicaragua, 84.El Ocotal (˘el ¯ok ¯o t¨al0), Nicaragua,84.El Paso, Tex., 67, 74.Ellipse (see Glossary, p. 315), 21–22, 192, 206, 307.Ellipsoid of rotation (see Glossary,p. 319), 35.Encyclopaedia Britannica, 102.England, 9, 79, 81, 88, 99, 137,139, 272.Ephemeris (¯e f˘em0¯e r˘ıs), see Nauti-cal almanac.Epicureans, 271.Equador, 82.
327Equation of time (see Glossary,p. 315), 123–127.Equator (see Glossary, p. 315)celestial, 46, 151, 170–175, 282,293.length of day at, 157.terrestrial, 22, 32, 48, 119, 149–153, 271, 279, 308.Equinox (see Glossary, p. 315), 120,149, 155, 156, 168, 169, 283.precession of, 285–286, 301.Eratosthenes (˜er ˙a t˘os0th¯e n¯ez),269, 270.Erie, Pa., 90.Establishment, the, of a port, 180.Eudoxus, 269.Euripides (¯u r˘ıp0˘ı d¯ez), 122.Europe, 102, 167, 168, 220, 223,227, 286, 292.FFargo, N. D., 90.Farland, R. W., 133.Faroe (f¯a0r¯o), Islands, 82.Fathom, length of, 309.Fiji Islands, 97, 101, 103.Fiske, John, 145, 267.Fixed stars, 10, 109, 110, 265, 266.Florence, Italy, 88.Florida, 89, 91.Form of the earth, 23–42.Formosa, 83.Formulas, 306–308.Foucault (foo ko0), experiment,with gyroscope, 155.with pendulum, 53–56.France, 31, 63, 82, 87, 88, 131,137, 139, 186.Franklin’s almanac, 137.Fundy, Bay of, 188.GGainesville, Ga., 74.Galilei, Galileo (g˘al ˘ı l¯e0¯o g˘al ˘ı l¯a0¯e),276.Galveston, Tex., 74, 90.Gannett, Garrison and Houston’sCommercial Geography, 206.Gauss, 52.Gemini, 294, 296.Genesis, 142.Genoa, Italy, 75.Geocentric, latitude, see Latitudetheory.theory, (see Glossary, p. 316),275, 277.Geodesy (see Glossary, p. 316),274.Geodetic Association, Interna-tional, 288.Geographical constants, 308.Geoid (j¯e0oid), 32–36, 274.Geometry, origin of, 227.George II., King of England, 229.Georgia, 67, 74, 79, 88, 91.German East Africa, 83.Germany, 67, 75, 82, 83, 87, 88,97, 137, 234.Gibraltar, Spain, 81, 88.Glasgow, Scotland, 88.Globular projection, 199–201, 211.Glossary, 313–321.Gnomonic (n¯o m˘on0˘ık), cylindricalprojection, 210–212.Gnomonic projection, 202–205,211.Goode, J. Paul, 300.
328Goodsell Observatory, Northﬁeld,Minn., 68.Gravimetric lines, map showing,32.Gravitation, 16–18, 178, 179, 271,316.Gravity, 18, 24, 26, 28, 182–186,278–281, 289, 303, 304, 307,316.on Jupiter, 18, 257.on Mars, 254.on Mercury, 260.on moon, 19, 261.on Neptune, 260.on Saturn, 258.on sun, 18, 265.on Uranus, 259.on Venus, 256.Great Britain, 63, 67, 76, 79, 181,234.Great circle sailing, 203, 204, 213.Greece, 83, 87.Greenland, 218.Greenwich (Am. pron., gr˘en0w˘ıch;Eng. pron., gr˘ın0˘ıj; or gr˘en0˘ıj),England, 39, 40, 63, 66, 67,72, 75, 77, 79, 81, 83, 85–92,96, 101, 125–127, 172.Gregorian calendar, 136–139.Guam, 72, 86.Guaymas, Mexico, 84.Guiana, French, 87, 272.Gulf of Mexico, 35, 188.Gunnison, Utah, 244.Guthrie, Okla., 89.Gyroscope (j¯ı0r¯o sk¯op), 154, 155.HHague, The, Holland, 83, 88.Hamburg, Germany, 88, 126.Harkness, William, 273, 309.Harper’s Weekly, 163, 164.Harte, Bret, 93.Hartford, Conn., 90.Harvard Astronomical Station(Peru), 164.Havana, Cuba, 82, 86, 88.Hawaiian (Sandwich) Islands, 86,101.Hayden, E. E., 6, 72, 75.Hayford, J. F., 34, 245.Hegira, 141.Helena, Mont., 90.Heliocentric theory (see Glossary,p. 316), 275, 276.Heliodon (h¯e0l˘ı o don), 301.Hemispheres unequally heated, 169,283.Heraclitus (h˘er a kl¯ı0tus), 269.Hercules (h˜er0c¯u l¯ez), constellation,248.Herodotus (he r˘od0o tus), 133, 267.Herschel, John, 32.Hidalgo, Mexico, 84.Hipparchus (h˘ıp ar0kus), 270, 285.Historical sketch, 267–277.Holland, 67, 83, 87, 88, 137.Holway, R. S., 155.Homer, 267.Homolographic projection, 205–208, 211.Honduras, 83.Hongkong, 81, 82, 88, 102.Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, 89,102.Horizon (see Glossary, p. 316), 36–39, 46, 152, 153, 158, 170, 175.Hungary, 137.
329Hutchins, Thomas, 229, 230.Huygens (h¯ı0gens), Christian, 272,273.IIceland, 82.Idaho, 89.Illinois, 89, 231, 232.Impressions of a Careless Traveler,quoted, 75, 143–145.India, 31, 81, 87, 88, 186, 243.Indian Ocean, 186.Indian principal meridian, 231.Indian Territory, survey of, 245.Indiana, 89, 231.Indianapolis, Ind., 90.Insolation, 166–170.International date line, 96, 102.International Geodetic Association,288.Intersecting conic projection, 222,223.Iowa, 79, 90.Ireland, 31, 63, 76, 81, 88, 234.Isle of Man, 81.Isogonal (¯ı s˘og0¯on al) line, 228.Italy, 67, 83, 88.JJackson, Miss., 90.Jacksonville, Fla., 90.James II., King of England, 272.Japan, 83, 84, 89, 288.Java, 87.Jeﬀerson, Thomas, 230.Jerusalem, 88.Journal of Geography, 156.Juarez (hoo ¨a0reth), Mexico, 74.Julian calendar, 135, 136, 140.Jupiter, 18, 251, 253, 256, 257,266, 272, 276.KK¨ustner, Professor, 110.Kamerun, Africa, 83.Kansas, 33.Kansas City, Mo., 90, 96.Keewatin, Canada, 81.Kentucky, 77, 89.Kepler, Johann, 277.laws of, 283–284.Key West, Fla., 90.Kiaochau (k¯e ¨a ¯o chow0), China, 82.Korea (k¯o r¯e0a), 84.Kramer, Gerhard, 215.LLa Condamine (l¨a kˆon0d¨a m¯en),188.Lake of the Woods, 234.Lake Superior, 232.Landmarks, use of, in surveys, 227–230.Lansing, Mich., 90, 232.Lapland, 273.Larkin, E. L., 265–266.Latitude (see Glossary, p. 317)astronomical, 281.celestial, 282, 283.geocentric, 281.geographical, 41.determined by altitude of cir-cumpolar star, 57–60.determined by altitude of noonsun, 170–175.determined by Foucault exper-iment, 54.lengths of degrees, 41–43.
330of principal cities, 87–92.origin of term, 39.Law Notes, quoted, 80.Layard, E. L., 101.Leavenworth, Francis P., 6.Legal aspect of standard time, 75–80.Leipzig, Germany, 88.Length of day, 156–159.Leo, 294, 296.Lewis, Ernest I., 146.Lexington, Ky., 90.Leyden, Holland, 83, 271.Libra (li0bra), 118, 294.Lick Observatory, 68, 72.Lima (l¯e0ma), Peru, 85.Lincoln, Neb., 90.Link of surveyor’s chain, 309.Lisbon, Portugal, 39, 72, 85, 88.Little Dipper, 9.Little Rock, Ark., 90, 232.Liverpool, England, 88.London Times, 140.London, England, 39, 62, 63, 94–97, 100, 137.Longitude (see Glossary, p. 317)and time, 61–92.celestial, 282.how determined, 62–66, 129.lengths of degrees, 42.of principal cities, 87–92.Longitude, origin of term, 39.Los Angeles, Calif., 89.Louis XIV., King of France, 27.Louisiana, 89, 231.Louisville, Ky., 77, 90.Lowell, Mass., 90.Lowell, Percival, 98, 254.Luxemburg, 67, 84.Luzon, 90.MMacaulay’s History of England,139, 140.Madison, Wis., 66, 90.Madras (ma dr˘as0), India, 72, 81,88.Madrid, Spain, 72.Magellan’s ﬂeet, 93.Magnetic compass, 152, 153, 228.Magnetic pole, 153.Maine, 30, 35.Malta, 81.Managua (m¨a n¨a0gu¨a), Nicaragua,84.Manila, Philippine Is., 72, 89, 102–104.change of date at, 102.Manitoba, Canada, 81.Map, 39, 40, 231, 237.Map projections, 190–226.Mare Island Naval Observatory, 68,70, 86.Mariane Islands, 82.Markham, A. H., 153, 164, 165.Mars, 253–255, 266, 284, 305.Marseilles, France, 88.Maryland, 88.Massachusetts, 88, 89, 228.Mauritius (ma r˘ısh0˘ı ˘us) Island, 72.McNair, F. W., 6, 51.Mean solar day, see Day.Measures of length, 309.Measuring diameter of moon, 241,242.Measuring distances of objects, 238,242.heights of objects, 239.
331Mediterranean, 102.Melbourne, Australia, 88.Memphis, Tenn., 90.Mercator projection, 204, 211–220.Mercedonius, 135.Mercury, 183, 253, 260, 261, 266.Meridian, 22, 28, 31, 36, 96–101,187, 189–226, 282, 317.celestial, 282, 283, 317.circle, 22.length of degrees of, 42.prime, 39, 40.principal, for surveys, 231–237.rate for convergence, 234.standard time, 66–67, 70, 73, 76,80–86, 300.Meridional parts, table of, 217.Meteors, 49, 249.Meter, length of, 309.Metes and bounds, 227, 229.Mexico, 84, 88, 102.Gulf of, 188.Michigan, 50, 67, 73, 75, 88, 89,232.College of Mines, 51.Midnight sun, 163.Mile, in various countries, 309.Milwaukee, Wis., 90, 104.Mining and Scientiﬁc Press, 51–54.Minneapolis, Minn., 62, 90, 96.Minnesota, 89, 91, 232, 234.Mississippi, 89.River, 232.Missouri, 89, 91.River, 228.Mitchell, Frank E., 6.Mitchell, S. D., 90.Miyako (m¯e y¨a0k¯o) Islands, 83.Mobile, Ala., 90.Mohammedan calendar, 141, 143–145.Mollendo, Peru, 85.Mollweide projection, 207.Montana, 89.Montevideo, Uruguay, 86, 88.Montgomery, Ala., 90.Month (see Glossary, p. 317), 134,135.sidereal, 177, 187.synodic, 177.Moon or satellite, 10, 19, 162,175–186, 241, 242, 247, 255,258–264, 266, 276, 287, 296,307.Moore, C. B. T., 97.Morse, J. F., 301.Moscow, Russia, 88.Motion in the line of sight, 107–110.Motions of the earth, 288.Motions of the earth’s axis, 285–288.Moulton, F. R., 251.Mount Diablo meridian, 231.Mountain time belt, 66, 67, 74.Munich (m¯u0n˘ık), Germany, 88.Myths and superstitions of the zo-diac, 295, 297.NNadir (see Glossary, p. 318), 36.Naples, Italy, 88.Nash, George W., 5.Nashville, Tenn., 91.Natal, Africa, 81.Nautical almanac, 119, 125, 171.Neap tides, 185, 187.Nebraska, 80, 89, 91, 228.
332Nebulae, 249, 251.Nebular hypothesis, 248–252.Nehemiah, 142.Neptune, 253, 260, 266.Neuchatel, Switzerland, 86.Nevada, 91.New Brunswick, Canada, 81.New Caledonia, 101.New Guinea, 82.New Hampshire, 89.New Haven, Conn., 91.New Jersey, 30, 77, 89, 91.New Mexico, 67, 74, 91, 231.New Orleans, La., 58, 66, 91, 109.New South Wales, 81, 88.New Style, 138–141, 144.New York, 75, 76, 88–92, 96, 98,100, 204.New York Sun, 77.New Zealand, 81, 97.Newark, N. J., 91.Newchwang, China, 82.Newcomb, Simon, 119.Newfoundland, 81.Newton, Isaac, 15, 50, 139, 271.Nicaea, Council of, 137.Nicaragua, 84.Nile, 227.North America, 102, 184, 213, 219,243, 286.North Carolina, 91.North Dakota, 88, 89, 235.North Sea, 186.North, line, 11, 59, 130.on map, 212, 218, 225.pole, 22, 46, 152, 153, 287.star, 42, 46, 48, 57, 149, 285.Northﬁeld, Minn., 68, 91.Northwest Territory, survey of,229–231.Norway, 67, 84, 87.Norwood, Richard, 271.Noumea, New Caledonia, 101.Nova Scotia, Canada, 81.Numa, 135.Nutation of poles, 286, 318.OOblateness of earth, 26–32, 36, 41,272–274.Obliquity of the ecliptic, 119, 148,287, 309, 315.Observations of stars, 9.Oﬃcial Railway Guide, 72–74.Ogden, Utah, 91.Ohio, 89, 231.River, 229.Oklahoma, 89.Old Farmer’s Almanac, 124.Old Style, 138–140, 144.Olympia, Wash., 91.Omaha, Neb., 91.Ontario, Canada, 81.Oporto, Portugal, 204.Opposition, 177, 178, 185.Orange River Colony, 81.Orbit, of earth, 22, 114–120, 122,133, 148, 152, 247, 252, 283,303–305.of moon, 177, 178, 262, 287.Oregon, 91.Origin of geometry, 227.Orion (o r¯ı0on), 112.Orkneys, The, 81.Oroya, Peru, 85.Orthographic projection, 191–195,199, 200, 211.Outlook, The, 75, 143–145.
333PPaciﬁc Ocean, 67, 97, 98, 185, 243.Paciﬁc time belt, 67.Pago Pago (pron. pango, pango),Samoa, 91, 97.Palestine, 88.Pallas, 292.Panama, 68, 85, 86, 88.Para, Brazil, 88.Parallax, 110, 242, 276, 318.Parallelism of earth’s axis, 154.Parallels, 22, 190–225.Paris, France, 27, 28, 39, 53, 63,88, 272.Parliament, 76.Pegasus (p˘eg0a s˘us), Square of, 47.Peking, China, 89.Pendulum clock, 27, 53, 308.Pennsylvania, 77, 89, 229, 230.Perigee, 178, 318.Perihelion, 120, 283, 318.Peru, 85, 273.Pescadores (p˘esk¯ad¯or0¯ez) Is., 83.Phases of the moon, 10, 263.Philadelphia, Pa., 25, 26, 58, 66,91.Philippine Is., 86, 102.Phobos (f¯o0b˘us), 255, 305.Phoenicians, 268.Photographing, 49.Picard (p¯e k¨ar0), Jean, 271, 273.Pierre, S. D., 91.Pisces (p˘ıs0s¯ez), 293, 295.Pittsburg, Pa., 91.Planetesimal hypothesis, 251.Planets, 19, 49, 247, 284, 304.Plato, 269.Pleiades (pl¯e0y¨a d¯ez), 47, 122.Plumb line, 11, 50, 280, 281.Plutarch, 269.Point Arena, Calif., 30.Point Barrow, 91.Pointing exercise, 37–39.Poland, 31, 137.Polar diameter of earth, 308.Polaris, see Polestar.Pole, celestial, 46, 170, 171, 283,285, 318.magnetic, 153.nutation of, 287.of the ecliptic, 285, 287.terrestrial, 22, 36, 46, 53–55, 59,152–155, 157, 192–212, 279,285, 287, 289.Polestar, (see North star), 9, 10,285.Polyconic projection, 223–224.Popular Astronomy, 133.Port Said (s¨a ¯ed0), Egypt, 82.Portland, Ore., 91.Porto Rico, 86, 91.Portugal, 39, 85, 88.Posidonius (p˘os0˘ı d¯o n˘ı us), 270.Practical Navigator, 217.Practical work, 298–302.Precession of equinoxes, 285–286.Prince Edward Island, Can., 81.Princeton, N. J., 91.Principal meridian, 231–237.Projectiles, 303–305.Projections, map, 189–226.Proofs, form of earth, 23–28, 31–34, 273.revolution of earth, 105–112, 275,276.rotation of earth, 50–56, 61, 109,155.Proper motion of stars, 110.
334Providence, R. I., 91.Psalms, 252.Ptolemaic system, 274, 319.Ptolemy Necho, of Egypt, 267.Ptolemy, Claudius, 270.Pulkowa, Russia, 72, 85, 89.Pythagoras (p˘ı th˘ag0¯o ras), 269,274.QQuebec, Canada, 81.Queensland, Australia, 81.Quito (k¯e0t¯o), Equador, 82, 163,174.RRadius vector, 283, 319.Raleigh, N. C., 91.Ranges of townships, 231–234, 236.Rapid City, S. D., 244.Rate of curvature of earth’s surface,26, 41, 42.Refraction of light, 44, 159, 319.Revolution (see Glossary, p. 319),105–132, 147, 154, 184, 247,249, 251, 254, 257–263, 276,283–288.Rhode Island, 91.Rhodesia, Africa, 81.Richer (re sh¯ay0), John, 27, 272.Richmond, Va., 91.Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 89.Rochester, N. Y., 91.Roman calendar, 135, 139.Rome, Italy, 72, 89.Rotation of earth, 22, 319.Rotation, proofs of, 50, 155.Rotterdam, Holland, 88.Roumania, 67.Russia, 31, 85, 88, 97, 103, 140,243.SSacramento, Calif., 91.Sagittarius (s˘ag ˘ıt t¯a0r˘ı ˘us), 294.Salvador (s¨al v¨a d¯or), 85.Samoa, 83, 87, 91, 97, 101.San Bernardino, Calif., 231.San Francisco, Calif., 91, 173.San Jose (h¯o s¯a0), Costa Rica, 82.San Juan del Sur, Nicaragua, 84.San Juan, Porto Rico, 91.San Rafael (r¨a f¨a ˘el0), Mexico, 84.San Salvador, Salvador, 85.Santa Fe, N. M., 91.Santiago (s¨an t¯e ¨a0g¯o), Chile, 81.Santo Domingo, 85.Saskatchewan, Canada, 81.Satellite, see Moon.Saturn, 29, 249, 253, 258, 266.Savannah, Ga., 91.Scale of miles, 195, 217, 225.Schott, C. A., 31.Scientiﬁc American, 266, 304.Scorpio, 294.Scotland, 81, 88, 139, 186.Scrap Book, 64.Seasons, 147–175.Seattle, Wash., 91.Section, 236.Seoul (s¯a ¯o¯ol0), Korea, 84.Servia, 67, 85.Seven motions of earth, 288.Seven ranges of Ohio, 230.Sextant, 60.Shakespeare, 297.Shanghai (sh˘ang0h¯ı), China, 81.Shetland Is., 81.
335Siam, 87.Siberia, 98, 100, 103.Sicily, 288.Sidereal, clock, 68, 69.day, 54, 314.month, 177, 317.year, 133, 285, 309, 321.Signals, time, 70–72, 80–87.Signs of zodiac, 116, 293, 319.Sines, natural, table of, 310.Sirius (s˘ır0˘ı us), 47.Sitka, Alaska, 72, 91.Snell, Willebrord, 271.Solar day, see Day.Solar system, 247–266.table, 266.Solstices, 149, 167, 301, 319.Sosigenes (so s˘ıg0e n¯ez), 135.South America, 32, 169, 186, 201,213, 218, 272.South Australia, 81.South Carolina, 89.South Dakota, 88–92, 228, 234,235, 244.South, on map, 201, 212, 225.pole, 153.star, 46–48, 57, 58, 149, 152.Southern Cross, 46.Spain, 67, 85, 87, 93, 129, 215.Spectrograph, 110.Spectroscope, 56, 108, 110.Sphere, deﬁned, 20.Spheroid, 22, 27–32, 319.Spitzbergen, 31.Spring tides, 184, 187.Square of Pegasus, 47.St. John’s, Newfoundland, 81.St. Louis, Mo., 25, 26, 66, 84, 91.St. Paul, Minn., 91, 96.St. Petersburg, Russia, 72, 85, 89,169, 174.Stadium (st¯a0d˘ı um), 270.Standard parallel, 234, 235.Standard time, 64–88.Star, distance of a, 44, 247.motions of, 109, 110, 265, 266.sun a, 265–266.Stereographic projection, 195–200,211.Stockholm, Sweden, 86, 89.Strabo (str¯a0b¯o), 270.Strauss, N. M., 74.Sun, 10–12, 18, 162, 247–249, 251,264–266.a star, 265–266.apparent motions of, 113, 293.declination of, 127, 171–175.fast or slow, 61, 123–131.Sun Board, 300, 301.Sundial, 61, 64, 131, 298–300.Survey, 29, 31, 34, 227, 271.Surveyor’s chain, 228, 309.Sweden, 31, 67, 86, 89, 276.Switzerland, 67, 86, 137.Sydney, Australia, 88.Syene, Egypt, 270.Symbols, 306.Syzygy, 178, 185, 320.TTables, list of, 312.Tacubaya (t¨a k(oo b¨a0ya), Mexico,84.Tallahassee, Fla., 91, 231.Tamarack mine, 50, 52.Tangents, natural, table of, 311.Tasmania, 81.Taurus, 293, 296.
336Tegucigalpa, Honduras, 83.Telegraphic time signals, 68, 80.Tennessee, 89.Texas, 88, 89, 244.Thales (th¯a0l¯ez), 269.Thompson, A. H., 244.Thucydides (thu s˘ıd0˘ı d¯ez), 133.Tidal wave, bore, etc., 184, 188.Tides, 176–189, 279, 288–291.Tientsin (t¯e ˘en0ts¯en), China, 82.Tiers of townships, 232, 235, 236.Time (see Glossary, p. 320), ap-parent solar, 61.ball, 70, 81.confusion, 64, 72–75, 144.how determined, 68.in various countries, 80–87.local, 63.signals, 68–72, 80–87.standard, 64–88, 129.Times, London, 140.Titicaca, Lake, Peru, 85.Todd, David, 107, 287.Toga Is., 83.Tokyo, Japan, 89.Toledo, O., 73.Tonga Is., 101.Toscanelli, 213.Township, 230–237.Transit instrument, 68.Transvaal, 81.Trenton, N. J., 92.Triangulation, 30, 31, 238, 274.Tropics, 151, 152, 173, 268, 320.Tunis, 82.Turkey, 86, 88, 143–145.Turkish calendar, 143–145.Tutuila (too tw¯e0l¨a), Samoa, 86, 97,98.Twilight, 162–166.UUnequal heating, 169, 283.United States, 29–32, 34, 40, 47,50, 64, 68, 70, 76, 86, 89, 97,99, 102–103, 127, 129, 161,168, 186, 225, 227–237, 288,292.United States Coast and GeodeticSurvey, 29, 31, 34, 243, 245,309.United States Geological Survey,29, 243, 244.United States Government LandSurvey, 227–237.United States Naval Observatory,68–72, 79.University of California, 156.University of Chicago, 251, 300.Ur, ancient Chaldean city, 142.Uranus (¯u0ra nus), 253, 259, 266.Ursa Major, 9.Uruguay, 86, 88.Utah, 91, 244.VValparaiso (v¨al p¯a r¯ı0s¯o), Chile, 81,88.Van der Grinten, Alphons, 208.Velocity of rotation, 56.Venezuela, 87.Venus, 183, 253, 256, 266, 276.Vernal equinox, see Equinox.Vertical ray of sun, 147, 148, 152,155, 156, 165, 166, 312.Vibrations, color, 107.Victoria, Australia, 81, 88.
337Vincocaya (v˘ın k¯o k¨a0y¨a), Peru,164.Virginia, 92.Virginia City, Nev., 92.Virgo, 294.Voltaire, 273.Volume of earth, 309.WWady-Halfa (w¨a0d¯e h¨al0f¨a), Egypt,82.Wallace, Kan., 33.Wandering of the poles, 287.Washington, 92.Washington, D. C., 34, 40, 66, 70,84, 85, 125, 231.Washington, D. C., 92.Washington, George, 139, 140.Watch, to set by sun, 129.Weight, see Gravity.Wellington, New Zealand, 72.West Virginia, 91.Western European time, 67.What keeps the members of thesolar system in their orbits?,303–305.Wheeling, W. Va., 92.Wilhelm II., Emperor, 76.Wilmington, Del., 92.Winona, Minn., 92.Winter constellations, 112.Wisconsin, 66, 88, 89, 104, 232.Woodward, R. S., 6, 34.World Almanac, 124.Wyoming, 89.XXico, Mexico, 84.YYaeyama (y¯e y¨a0m¨a) Is., 83.Yaqui River, Mexico, 84.Year, 133, 134, 285, 309, 321.Young, C. A., 163.Youth’s Companion, 71, 153, 166.Ysleta (˘ıs l¯a0t¨a), Tex., 74.ZZikawei (z˘ı k¨a0w¯e), China, 81.Zodiac, 116, 118, 142, 291, 321.Zones, 153, 255–259, 261, 263.
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