34: The Great Plague2. How does the inquisition appear from this distance as a desperate effort to exercise control in a world that refused to conform to the desire of the papacy to control it?
251Corruption and the Beginnings of Reform
35Throughout its history, Christianity has had the ability to generate reform movements based on the conviction that its high ideals were being compromised by actual practice. Early monasticism, for example, can be seen as a form of organized resistance to what the monks perceived to be the compromised position of the church after Christianity became the imperial religion. Later, such popes as Gregory VII and Innocent III worked for the reform of the clergy and fought the practice of simony. In this lecture, however, we consider the sort of corruption those reforms could not touch: the deep and systemic dysfunction in late-medieval Christianity and the rst efforts at structural—as distinct from moral—reform.Christendom in the Middle Ages• Given the chaotic state of the West during the migration of nations in the 4th and 5th centuries, the medieval synthesis is remarkable both for its stability and its comprehensiveness.o If we mark the starting date for this synthesis as the coronation of Charlemagne in 800, Catholic culture shaped Europe for some 800 years.o This culture gathered a bewildering variety of warring tribes and diverse languages into a single coherent civilization from Poland to England, from Italy and Spain to Scandinavia.o Coherence was achieved not least by the use of a single language (Latin), a single creed, and a single religious authority (the pope).• For all the tensions and corruptions that it created, the political dance between pope and emperor (and, later, between pope and kings) provided a fundamental stability to society and mutual legitimation of both institutions.
35: Corruption and the Beginnings of Reform• Emerging rst from a struggle simply to survive, Christianity grew to shape signicant cultural accomplishments.o The way of life in monasteries and cathedral chapters represented an ideal of human existence ordered to the worship of God, in which “the love of learning and the desire for God” were intricately connected.o Cathedrals and the arts employed within them provided a focus for a religious form of art that has had enduring value.o The development of universities, with their study of law and theology, united the life of faith and the use of reason in a critical synthesis.• There is, nally, no question that Christianity during this period provided the setting and stimulus for men and women of great sanctity. The religious fervor involved in the Crusades, pilgrimages, monastic vows, mendicant wanderings, mystical prayer, and so on may not always have been pure but was nevertheless largely genuine and astonishingly widespread.Structural Issues in Christianity• Still, by the 14th century, it was becoming clear that the medieval synthesis was badly in need of correction, not because of minor faults or problems but because of major and structural issues.• The Scholastic theology that developed in the cathedral and monastic schools and in the universities quickly became “scholastic” in the negative sense; it was more philosophical and academic—removed from the life of faith.o Theology used Scripture as a repository of proof texts more than as a set of compositions that could challenge or energize thinking.o Doctrinal attention, in turn, both reected and affected shifts in piety. For some, the divinity of Christ was so greatly
253emphasized as to deemphasize his humanity, and the honor shown Mary threatened to displace the worship of Christ.• In liturgy, worship in the cathedrals was more a matter of performance by the clergy than of participation of the faithful, carried out in a language (Latin) that was increasingly unknown to any but the learned clergy. o Eucharistic controversies stressing the “real presence” led to the “adoration” of the host more than the eating of a meal. The adoration of the Blessed Sacrament may have been initiated by Francis of Assisi and is attested as a lay practice in Paris around 1226. Eventually, the service of “benediction of the Blessed Sacrament” entered Catholic life.o “Sacramentals” increasingly displaced the sacraments as the focus of Catholic piety: devotion to the saints, collection of relics, pilgrimages, and the winning and selling of indulgences.o The life of piety could be regarded more as a set of practices designed to avoid eternal punishment in hell or the terrors of purgatory, rather than an expression of a living relationship with the resurrected Christ.• In the political realm, the long involvement of the church in the affairs of state—supported by the Donation of Constantine—had the paradoxical effect of actually lessening its spiritual authority, making it appear (as it often actually was) as one power broker among others, rather than the representative of a “rule of God” that transcended human authorities.• The hierarchical structure of Catholicism itself seemed badly in need of reform.o It established, in effect, a caste system, with ignorant laity completely disenfranchised, ignorant local clergy only slightly more powerful, and then (in ascending order of prestige, power, and wealth), monks, mendicants, bishops, cardinals, and the pope.
35: Corruption and the Beginnings of Reformo Predictably, corruption in the system involved sex, money, and power.o The centralized power of the papacy, once so important in forging the medieval synthesis, appeared increasingly to be a problem more than a solution, especially when its claims—as with Boniface VIII—stretched credulity. In the years of the Avignon papacy and the Great Schism, the moral authority of the papacy was greatly reduced.The Beginnings of Reform• The stirrings of reform and even revolt appeared in the 14th and 15th centuries among men and women who thought of themselves as Christians and good Catholics, but whose desire to reform, when resisted, sometimes became more radical, foreshadowing the great Reformation of the 16th century.• Already in the early 14th century, Marsilius of Padua, rector at the University of Paris, wrote a devastating attack on the power of the papacy in Defensor pacis (Defender of the Peace, 1324). He was excommunicated for his views by John XXII in 1327 and spent the rest of his life, predictably, under the protection of the emperor.o Marsilius argued that the state is the unifying force in society and that the church must be subordinated to state authority; the church has no inherent authority in either temporal or spiritual matters.o The papacy, furthermore, is a human not a divine institution and would have no authority at all were it not for the Donation of Constantine (still thought to be authentic).• The female mystics Birgitta of Sweden and Catherine of Siena both called for the reunication of the papacy and the reform of the morals of the clergy. Although they did not call for structural changes, their voices are signicant for illustrating the awareness of moral corruption, even within the ranks of the most deeply committed Christians.
255• John Wyclif (1330–1384) was one of the most important forerunners to the Reformation of the 16th century. He was a philosopher and theologian whose life was centered in the environs of Oxford. His radical teachings eventually lost him support at the university, and his teachings were condemned by the Council of Constance in 1415; nevertheless, he had enormous inuence on later reformers.o Wyclif sought guidance directly from Scripture and earlier patristic writers rather than the Scholastic theologians, and he inspired an English translation of the Bible undertaken by his disciples (1380–1392).o He developed a theory concerning the church that distinguished its eternal ideal from its material realization; all authority depended on divine grace, and rulers and clergy could be deposed if they were not in a state of grace.o In tractates written in 1377–1378, Wyclif argued that Scripture was the sole authority for the “eternal” church and that the papacy was not authorized by Scripture. In his work On Apostasy (1382), he argued that religious orders (especially the mendicants) had no basis in Scripture.o In On the Eucharist, Wyclif attacked the doctrine of transubstantiation as superstitious and inculcated the moral and spiritual aspects of communion.Wyclif sought guidance from Scripture and earlier patristic writers; in this sense, he represents a return to sources that would be important for the Reformation, analogous to the return to sources that generated the Renaissance.© Hemera/Thinkstock.
35: Corruption and the Beginnings of Reform• John Huss (Jan Hus, c. 1372–1415) was born of a Czech peasant family in Bohemia, was ordained a priest, and became dean of the philosophical faculty at the University of Prague, as well as a popular preacher.o Huss became aware of Wyclif’s works, especially his political doctrines concerning the elimination of private property and hierarchy within society, and his teaching on the spiritual as opposed to the material church.o His violent sermons on the immorality of the clergy stimulated resistance, and under Innocent VII, Huss was forbidden to preach in 1407. When the Czech state took over the University of Prague and made Huss rector, papal resistance was even greater. Huss was excommunicated in 1411, and his followers were interdicted.o After writing his On the Church (substantially borrowed from Wyclif), Huss was granted safe passage to the Council of Constance, but on his arrival, he was imprisoned, and he died at the stake in 1415.• Lorenzo Valla (c. 1406–1457) was an Italian Humanist and a professor at Pavia, but his controversial writings led him to seek refuge with King Alfonso of Aragon.o In 1440, his use of historical-critical methods established that the Donation of Constantine was a forgery; this eliminated a cornerstone of the papal claims to temporal power in Europe.o In 1442, he undertook a critical comparison of the Greek New Testament and the Vulgate, which had the effect of diminishing the assumed authority of the version of Scripture used in churches.• Finally, Girolamo Savonarola (1452–1498) was a Dominican priest who studied philosophy; as a professor at San Marco and the University of Bologna, he emphasized the knowledge of Scripture in the original languages.
257o When he became rector at San Marco in 1491, Savonarola adopted an apocalyptic style of preaching, condemning the corruption of society and the church.o On the death of Lorenzo de’ Medici in 1492, he set up a theocratic regime in Florence, seeking to establish a Christian culture based on the Bible in opposition to the “pagan culture” of the Humanists.o Despite being excommunicated by Alexander VI in 1497, Savonarola continued to preach and published a defense of Christianity. Declaring that Alexander was not even a Christian much less pope, Savonarola turned public opinion against himself and, after being condemned for schism and heresy, was hanged and burned in 1498.• These Catholic reformers anticipated virtually every theme that would form the basis of the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, but they remained too isolated to accomplish the goals that in the next century would become more widely shared and more effectively pursued.Evans, John Wyclif.Weinstein, Savonarola. 1. Discuss the ways in which “good Catholics” of the 14th and 15th centuries anticipated in thought and action the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century.2. Comment on the following statement: The reforming initiatives of the 14th and 15th centuries were distinguished by their focus on structural and not merely moral changes. Suggested Reading Questions to Consider
36: The Ever-Adapting ReligionThe Ever-Adapting Religion
36Our survey of Christianity has been along fairly well-lit paths, where historical evidence has been sufcient for us to observe the ways in which this religion has demonstrated a remarkable capacity for cultural adaptation. In this lecture, we will review that historical path and follow it briey from the 16th century into the present. We’ll also examine the question of the religion’s delity to its own identity through all of its cultural permutations. In the end, we nd this delity in the lives of the “saints”—not just those who are well known to us but those who sought to live by the gospel as they understood it and, by doing so, communicated something of its power to succeeding generations.Tracing the History of Christianity• Beginning as a sect of Judaism in Palestine and interacting intensely with the symbols of Torah as it shaped its own Scriptures, Christianity’s rst great expansion involved interaction with the dominant Greco-Roman culture of the Mediterranean world.• During the centuries of persecution, as the movement sought self-denition within a hostile empire, further negotiations with culture were required: To Judaism’s Scripture, Christians said yes, but to its language and law, they said no; to Greco-Roman moral philosophy, Christians said yes, but to its religion, no; Christians said yes to powerful religious experience, but no to experiences that threatened tradition.• Becoming the established religion of the Roman Empire under Constantine caused the greatest cultural adaptation: A formerly despised sect regarded as a superstition became the religious glue for a world-spanning empire. In every respect, Christianity had to stretch mightily in order to play the role assigned it.
259• The form of Christianity based in Constantinople became ever more Greek in character and ever more integrally entwined with the culture called “Byzantine.” This form continued after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 in the Orthodox Christianity of the Russian Empire.• The form of Christianity based in the old capital city of Rome had to negotiate its existence in the face of the collapse of the empire. A fusion of disparate elements was required to shape “Christendom,” a civilization that lasted for more than 700 years: the emergence of the papacy, the development of religious orders in harmony with the papacy, and the nurturing of a new Holy Roman Empire in the Frankish kingdom.The Reformation and Beyond• This clear historical narrative would continue for the following centuries and reveal even more vividly Christianity’s adaptive capacities.• The Reformation of the 16th century divided Christianity even more decisively than the split between Catholicism and Orthodoxy in 1054. The fragmentation of reform into many Protestant denominations would have as a corollary the conformation of diverse forms of Protestant Christianity to diverse national cultures. • A perhaps unexpected effect of the challenge put to Catholicism by Protestant reformers was the Counter-Reformation, which involved simultaneously a reafrmation (even a hardening) of doctrinal and ecclesiastical positions and a thoroughgoing moral and educational reform of religious orders and local clergy.• The religious crisis caused by the Reformation in the 16th century also had the unanticipated result of generating enormous energy in every form of Christianity in Europe. Christian kings sent missionaries to accompany explorers in the 15th and 16th centuries, and the discovery of new lands and peoples generated
36: The Ever-Adapting Religionfresh translations of the Bible and the establishment of Christian institutions in distant lands.• Between the 16th and 20th centuries, therefore, Christianity became a truly “world religion,” with adherents in every land and language. o As it expanded, Christianity was increasingly required to engage questions of cultural diversity. Such questions, in turn, raised concerns about the possibility of compromising Christianity’s identity or the use of the Christian mission as an instrument of European cultural hegemony.o These questions remain open, even as Christianity faces more severe challenges that have been posed by modernity. Perhaps the greatest challenge of all, in light of the greatest part of Christian history, is this: How would Christianity deal with the end of the Constantinian era, when the church was decisively severed from its role as glue to the state if not society and when the state could once again even be hostile to this religion?The Limits of Historical Knowing• It is important to recognize that this “grand historical narrative” also misses a great deal of “what really happened” in the Christian past. As we noted in the rst lecture of this course, there are intrinsic limits to our historical knowing.• Our ability to talk about this religion as a historical entity depends a great deal on Christianity’s involvement in the political order, precisely because it is in the realm of the political that chronology, documentation, and major events are most in evidence.• When Christianity has lacked clear political involvement or when historical evidence is not available, little can be said about the religion in those times or places. • There is every reason to believe, however, that Christianity thrived at the level of peoples’ lives, even when little or nothing of historical signicant rose to the level of analysis.
261Fidelity to the Christian Identity• It is against the backdrop of such observations concerning historical visibility that any question concerning Christianity’s delity to its identity through all its cultural permutations should be posed.• The question of “the essence of the religion” and “religious forms” is a worthwhile one but is particularly difcult to answer in the case of Christianity, which as we have seen, had no stable identity or form of its own before it engaged, was shaped by, and shaped the Jewish and Greco-Roman cultural worlds. Were the rst “forms” of Christianity constitutive of its “essence”? Or is the essence one that can exist in dramatically different expressions?o The answer to the question may depend to some extent on what forms draw our attention. If we focus, for example, on the forms of institution, public liturgy, conciliar decisions, and structures of authority, we might come up with one conclusion.o If we focus, however, on forms of religious expression that do not rise so easily to visibility, we might draw another conclusion; such forms might include acts of piety, forms of prayer, or the witness of married life or celibate existence. Note that we are not, here, appealing to a vague “spirit” as distinct from the “body” so as to argue that real Christianity is an inward, “spiritual” thing; we are talking entirely about bodies in different degrees of visibility.• The differences in Christianity in the forms that are available to historical inquiry are obvious and dramatic.o There is a great distance between the simple rituals of baptism and Lord’s Supper in the age of persecution and the elaborate liturgy and sacramental system of the church under Constantine.o The desert mothers and fathers of the 4th century might recognize a fellow ascetic in Benedict of Nursia, but they would not know what to think about the magnicence of the
36: The Ever-Adapting ReligionAbbey of Cluny and the hierarchical and liturgical dance of life in that monastery.o The bishops who exercised care within dioceses in the 4th century could hardly have imagined the central authority of the papacy in the High Middle Ages, nor could Pope Gregory I have understood the actions and claims of Gregory VII or Innocent III.o The Christian gatherings in private homes and catacombs in the rst three centuries would have been swallowed by the grand spaces of the Roman basilicas and the medieval cathedrals.o The evangelist Matthew, who reported Jesus as forbidding retaliation, and the martyrs who willingly died despite being treated unjustly could not have comprehended the logic behind the Crusades that killed thousands of Christians, as well as Jews and Muslims.o The structure and selling of indulgences, the system of Scholastic theology, and the practice of the inquisition could have found no place in Christianity’s earliest period.o Indeed, as the study of Christian theology and art can easily demonstrate, even the conceptions of Christianity’s central gure have undergone constant cultural adaptation. • Precisely such dramatic changes in religious and cultural forms made the Protestant reformers charge that in Catholicism, Christianity had also lost its essence and that only a return to the earlier forms, such as those found in the New Testament, could restore the truth of the Gospels.o Thus, reformers insisted that the essence of Christianity—authentic Christianity—was to be found in the elimination of the elaborate and highly structured and a return to the simple and spontaneous.
263o The targets of the reformers were consistent: Scholastic theology, the power of the papacy, the complications of the liturgy and canon law, the institution of monasticism and religious life generally, and the emphasis on externals rather than internal realities, on “works” rather than the simple response of the heart.• The justice of the reformer’s charges is difcult to deny, for the changes they point to are obvious to anyone with a historical sense. Yet the fundamental charge that Christianity had lost its “essence” in the time leading up to the Reformation may be much too strong. o The problem with a counter-assertion, however, is the difculty of substantiating it; can it be shown that ordinary Christians lived lives fully consonant with the Jesus of the Gospels, the teaching of Paul, and the guidance of the Holy Spirit?o Did the elaboration or even the corruption of public forms also corrupt in a fundamental way those practices of piety, charity, generous devotion, and quiet witness of a good life that had always, from the 1st to the 16th centuries, been the proclaimed goal of the Christian message?o Here, the evidence of the saints must count for something. By “saints,” we mean others than those ofcially recognized by the church, just as we must include others than the visible historical players. o We must include those who lived lives of patient endurance, quiet service, and deep charity in accordance with the gospel and, by so living, communicated something of the gospel’s power from one generation to the next. It does not matter whether they were monk or mendicant, pilgrim or poet. What matters is the character of their lives.o In the nal analysis, although it would make for dull reading because it would be so lacking in high adventure or political
36: The Ever-Adapting Religionintrigue, perhaps the most authentic history of Christianity is, after all, the history of the saints.o Perhaps there were not so many of such folk as one would like in all these long years, but there were surely enough, for it must be said that without some such spark of life being transmitted from generation to generation, there would not have been any history at all to speak of.Bass, A People’s History of Christianity.Pelikan, Jesus through the Ages. 1. How does the question concerning the “essence” of Christianity force us to recognize the limits of historical knowledge?2. How does the post-Constantinian era alter the rules of the game within which Christianity was played for most of its history? Suggested Reading Questions to Consider
265BibliographyEssential ReadingThe Cambridge History of Christianity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Vol. 1, Origins to Constantine, edited by M. M. Mitchell and F. Young (2006); vol. 2, Constantine to ca. 600, edited by F. Casiday and F. W. Norris (2007); vol. 3, Early Medieval Christianity, ca. 600–ca. 1100, edited by T. F. X. Noble and J. M. H. Smith (2008); vol. 4, Christianity in Western Europe, ca. 1100–1500, edited by M. Rubin and W. Simons (2009); vol. 5, Eastern Christianity, edited by M. Angold (2006). Detailed and authoritative essays by rst-rate scholars on virtually every topic treated in this course.Cross, F. L., and E. A. Livingstone, eds. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. An indispensable reference for Christian history; both comprehensive and accurate.Frend, W. H. C. The Rise of Christianity. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984. A recommended broad survey. Gonzalez, J. L. The Story of Christianity, vol. 1, The Early Church to the Dawn of the Reformation. 2nd ed. San Francisco: Harper One, 2010. A recommended broad survey.Gruen, B. The Timetables of History. 3rd rev. ed. New York: Simon and Shuster, 1975. Recommended for chronology.Kee, H. C., E. A. Hanawalt, C. Lindberg, J. L. Seban, and M. A. Knoll. Christianity: A Social and Cultural History. New York: MacMillan, 1991. A recommended broad survey.Littell, F. Historical Atlas of Christianity. 2nd exp. ed. New York: Continuum, 2001. Provides help in locating things geographically.
266BibliographySupplemental ReadingArbeth, J. The Black Death: The Great Mortality of 1348–1350: A Brief History with Documents. Bedford Series in History and Culture. New York: MacMillan, 2005. Especially valuable in this study is the collection of documents that illustrate the devastating effects of the plague in the 14th century.Ayres, L. Nicaea and Its Legacy: An Approach to Fourth-Century Trinitarian Theology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. A study of the controversies generated by the Arian heresy, with particular attention to the ways in which the interpretation of Scripture formed the orthodox position.Baldovin, J. F., S.J. The Urban Character of Christian Worship: The Origin, Development and Meaning of Stational Liturgy. Orientalia Christiana Analecta 228. Rome: Pontical Institute of Oriental Studies, 1987. A study of the expansion of Christian worship following its establishment as the imperial religion. Barber, C. Figure and Likeness: On the Limits of Representation in Byzantine Iconoclasm. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002. A thorough study of the issues posed by the veneration of images in Orthodox piety. Barclay, J. M. G. Jews in the Mediterranean Diaspora: From Alexander to Trajan (323 BCE–117 CE). Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1996. Authoritative survey of the life of Jews outside Palestine and exposed to Hellenistic culture.Bass, D. B. A People’s History of Christianity: The Other Side of the Story. San Francisco: Harper One, 2009. An attempt to tell the story from the perspective of ordinary Christians rather than the elite authors. Bihlmeyer, K. Church History. Revised by H. Tuechle and translated by V. E. Mills. 3 vols. Westminster, MD: Newman Press, 1968. A three-volume, deeply learned German history of the church, with the rst two volumes dealing with the centuries we consider in this course.
267Bloch, M. Feudal Society. Translated by L. A. Manyon. 2 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961. A classic and highly inuential study of every aspect of the basic societal arrangements of the medieval world.Brown, P. Augustine of Hippo. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000. One of the greatest scholars of late antiquity provides a readable and comprehensive account of the saint’s career.Burton, J., and J. Kerr. The Cistercians in the Middle Ages. Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2011. A recital and assessment of the important monastic reform movement that began in the Abbey of Cîteaux.Casey, M., and D. Tomlin. Introducing the Rule of Benedict: A Program of Formation. St. Ottilien: Eos Verlag, 2006. A guide to the ideals and practices of the monastic life as enunciated by the Rule of Benedict.Chitty, D. J. The Desert a City: An Introduction to the Study of Egyptian and Palestinian Monasticism under the Christian Empire. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1999. Shows the intricate social relations that enabled great communities of ascetics to arise and thrive outside urban centers.Clark, W. W. Medieval Cathedrals. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2006. A guide to specic cathedrals, with illustrations and historical context.Cohen, J. D. From the Maccabees to the Mishnah. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1987. A ne survey of the historical development of Judaism, up to and including the development of earliest Christianity. Daniélou, J. Origen. Translated by W. Mitchell. New York: Sheed and Ward, 1951. The best single-volume study of the great pioneer of Christian theology; emphasizes his place within the tradition of the church.———, and H. Marrou. The Christian Centuries, vol. 1, The First Six Hundred Years. Translated by V. Cronin. New York: McGraw Hill, 1964. A deeply learned and clearly written survey of the rst centuries of the Christian movement. Authoritative.
268BibliographyDiehl, C. Byzantium: Greatness and Decline. Translated by N. Walford. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1957. A classic study of the positive and negative aspects of the great empire that succeeded Rome.Dix, G. The Shape of the Liturgy. With additional notes by P. Marshall. New York: Seabury, 1982. The classic account of the development of Christian worship, with particular attention to the Eucharist.Dorries, H. Constantine and Religious Liberty. Translated by R. Bainton. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1960. Shows how Constantine tried to combine a privileging of the church with toleration for other religious traditions.Dunn, G. D. Tertullian. The Early Church Fathers. London: Routledge, 2004. An appreciation of one of the most original, as well as most irascible, of the early Christian teachers.Evans, G. R. John Wyclif: Myth and Reality. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic Press, 2006. A solid historical analysis of Wyclif as a serious philosopher, social critic, and theologian within the culture of Oxford University.———, ed. The Medieval Theologians: An Introduction to Theology in the Medieval Period. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2001. A collection of learned essays on the important—and lesser known—theologians in the university context.Ferguson, E. Backgrounds of Early Christianity. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993. A solid and informed depiction of the diverse elements in the cultural context of earliest Christianity.Fichtenau, H. The Carolingian Empire: The Age of Charlemagne. Translated by P. Munz. New York: Harper and Row, 1957. A detailed account of the Carolingian renaissance centered in the court of the great Frankish king.
269Fox, R. L. Pagans and Christians. New York: Knopf, 1987. A readable and responsible account of the relations between Christians and non-Christians until the conquest of Constantine.Frankopan, P. First Crusade: The Call from the East. London: Bodley Head, 2012. A detailed study of the rst and by far the most successful campaign against the Muslim occupiers of “the Holy Land.”Frend, W. H. C. Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church: A Study of Conict from the Maccabees to Donatism. New York: Doubleday, 1967. A survey of all the contexts within Judaism and early Christianity involving persecution and the possibility of martyrdom.Giles, E. Documents Illustrating Papal Authority, AD 96–454. London: SPCK, 1952. A valuable collection of primary sources that trace the growing prestige and primacy of the bishop of Rome.Grant, R. M. Greek Apologists of the Second Century. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1988. A solid introduction to the writers who constructed Christian identity through appeals to imperial authority.Grillmeier, A. Christ in Christian Tradition. Vol. 1, From the Apostolic Age to Chalcedon (451). Translated by J. Bowden. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1975. An authoritative study of the controversies over the nature of Christ, locating the rival positions in political and philosophical differences.Harmless, W., S.J. Desert Christians: An Introduction to the Literature of Early Monasticism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. This book traces the rst stages of monasticism from Antony through Pachomius.Hemer, C. The Book of Acts in the Setting of Hellenistic Historiography. WUNT 49. Tuebingen: JCB Mohr (Siebeck), 1989. Based on the best available archaeological and literary evidence, this monograph makes a strong case for the basic historicity of Luke-Acts, at least with respect to getting the facts of the 1st-century Mediterranean world right.
270BibliographyHolloway, R. R. Constantine and Rome. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004. Shows that the emperor by no means abandoned the rst Rome when he founded the second but engaged in an extensive and impressive building program.Johnson, L. T. Among the Gentiles: Greco-Roman Religion and Christianity. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2009. A revisionist reading of the relations between Greco-Roman paganism and Christianity, based on an analysis of “ways of being religious.”———. The Real Jesus: the Misguided Quest for the Historical Jesus and the Truth of the Traditional Gospels. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1996. Despite the lurid title, a consideration of what can and cannot be said about Jesus within the bounds of proper historiographical method.———. The Writings of the New Testament: An Interpretation. 3rd rev. ed. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2010. An account of Christian origins, the development of the New Testament compositions, and the process of canonization. Johnson, P. A History of Christianity. New York: Athenaeum, 1979. A typically contrarian and highly entertaining account of Christian history in which the usual heroes and villains are reversed. Kaegi, W. E. Byzantium and the Early Islamic Conquests. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. A thorough study of the pressure put on the Byzantine Empire by the military exploits of Muslim armies. Kelly, J. N. D. Early Christian Doctrines. Rev. ed. New York: Harper and Row, 1978. A clearly written and insightful guide through the complexities of the Trinitarian and Christological controversies. King, K. L. What Is Gnosticism? Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003. A sympathetic reading of the radical dualistic versions of Christianity that arose in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.
271Knowles, D. Christian Monasticism. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969. A survey of the varieties of monastic life by one of the great scholars in the eld. ———, and D. Obolensky. The Christian Centuries. Vol. 2, The Middle Ages. London: Dartmon, Longman and Todd, 1978. The second volume of the Daniélou-Marrou history, with an equal mastery of the period covered, in both East and West. Latourette, K. S. The Thousand Years of Uncertainty: 500–1500 AD. Vol. 2, A History of the Expansion of Christianity. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1966 (reprint). An older monumental work on Christian mission that sorts out the intricacies of evangelization in northern Europe. Lea, H. C. The Inquisition of the Middle Ages: Its Organization and Operation. New York: Harper and Row, 1963. A thorough and balanced analysis of the inquisition in all of its manifestations. LeClercq, J. The Love of Learning and the Desire for God: A Study of Monastic Culture. Translated by C. Misrahi. New York: Fordham University Press, 1982. Classic study of monastic life, showing how the round of prayer and reading gave rise to specic forms of scholarship. Lilla, S. R. C. Clement of Alexandria: A Study in Christian Platonism and Gnosticism. Oxford Theological Monographs. London: Oxford University Press, 1971. A scholarly analysis of the great teacher in the Alexandrian catechetical school. Louth, A. Greek East and Latin West: The Church, AD 681–1071. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 2007. The ways in which language, culture, and politics all fed the growing alienation between Rome and Constantinople. MacMullen, R. Christianizing the Roman Empire. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1984. Important study showing that Christianity’s growth was not through mass conversions so much as through personal contacts.
272BibliographyMalina, B. J. The New Testament World: Insights from Cultural Anthropology. Rev. ed. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1993. Shows how pervasive were the values of honor and shame in antiquity and how patronage structured society. Marty, M. The Christian World: A Global History. New York: The Modern Library, 2007. A short and readable account of the expansion of Christianity throughout its long history; inventive and insightful. Meeks, W. A., and J. T. Fitzgerald. The Writings of Saint Paul: Annotated Texts, Reception, and Criticism. Norton Critical Editions. New York: W. W. Norton, 2007. This updated version of a classic text provides authoritative notes on each of Paul’s letters, as well as a collection of classic essays devoted to the apostle both in the history of Christianity and by contemporary critical scholars.Miller, M. C. Power and the Holy in the Age of the Investiture Conict: A Brief History with Documents. Bedford Series in History and Culture. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2005. A helpful guide to the complex relations between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV over the right to appoint bishops. Moore, J. C. Pope Innocent III (1160/61–1216): To Root Up and to Plant. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2009. A study of the most powerful and inuential pope of the Middle Ages, climaxing in the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215. Moss, C. R. Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012. A detailed historical analysis of martyrdom and its understanding in several geographical areas. ———. The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. A readable study that traces the ways in which the gure of the martyr was conformed to that of Jesus in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.
273Murphy-O’Connor, J. Paul: A Critical Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. At times idiosyncratic in its judgments, this is nevertheless a solid and up-to-date effort to reconstruct the life of Paul.Nichols, A. Rome and the Eastern Churches: A Study in Schism. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2010. Traces the stages that led to the disastrous split within Christianity in the 11th century. Norwich, J. J. Byzantium: The Early Centuries. New York: Knopf, 2001. A compulsively readable account of the empire from Justinian to the iconoclastic controversy. Osborn, E. Irenaeus of Lyons. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. An appreciative look at one of the most pivotal gures in Christian history, the fashioner of the strategy of orthodox self-denition. Pelikan, J. Jesus through the Ages: His Place in the History of Culture. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999. A masterful account by a great historian of the changing images of Jesus in diverse cultural settings. ———. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine. Vol. 1, The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100–600). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971. A readable and authoritative account of doctrinal developments in the patristic period.———. The Excellent Empire: The Fall of Rome and the Triumph of the Church. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1987. A splendid account of Constantine’s establishment of Christianity as the imperial religion and the difference it made.Rosen, W. Justinian’s Flea: The First Great Plague and the End of the Roman Empire. New York: Penguin, 2008. Popular yet well-informed account of the devastating effects of the plague on Justinian’s great plans. Runciman, S. A History of the Crusades. 3 Vols. New York: Harper and Row, 1964. The standard scholarly treatment of the entire crusading movement, highly detailed and richly documented.
274BibliographyScott, R. A. The Gothic Enterprise: A Guide to Understanding the Medieval Cathedral. 2nd ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. The approach here is to survey the entire spiritual and ideological—as well as social and political—vision enacted by the great edices. Stark, R. The Rise of Christianity: A Sociologist Reconsiders History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984. An inuential study on the factors affecting the growth of Christianity during its rst three centuries. Stein, R. H. The Synoptic Problem: An Introduction. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987. A clearly written and reasonable presentation on the literary interdependence of the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. Strauss, M. L. Four Portraits, One Jesus: An Introduction to Jesus in the Gospels. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2007. Taking the literary presentation of the respective Gospel accounts seriously leads to distinctive images of Jesus, each of which has had an impact on subsequent history. Van der Meer, F. Augustine the Bishop: The Life and Work of a Father of the Church. Translated by B. Battershaw and G. R. Lamb. London: Sheed and Ward, 1978. An unusually detailed account, with helpful insights into the life of ordinary Christians in North Africa. Vogel, C. Medieval Liturgy: An Introduction to the Sources. Translated by W. Storey and N. Rasmussen. NPM Studies in Church Music and Liturgy. Washington, DC: The Pastoral Press, 1986. A valuable collection of sources in English translation, from Gregory’s Sacramentary forward. Von Campenhausen, H. The Fathers of the Latin Church. Translated by M. Hoffman. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1969. A straightforward and fact-lled introduction to Ambrose and Augustine, Jerome, and Gregory. Ware, T. The Orthodox Church. Suffolk: Penguin Press, 1964. Straightforward yet authoritative treatment of the elements making up “Holy Tradition.”Wei, I. P. Intellectual Culture in Medieval Paris: Theologians and the University ca. 1100–1330. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. A
275consideration of the most famous and inuential of the medieval universities and the role of theology in the formation of its culture. Weinstein, D. Savonarola: The Rise and Fall of a Renaissance Prophet. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2011. A study that restores complexity and intellectual heft to a gure who too often has been reduced to a caricature. Wells, C. Sailing from Byzantium: How a Lost Empire Shaped the World. New York: Delacorte Press, 2007. An appreciative reection on the accomplishments of Byzantium in many realms and its inuence through cultural diffusion.