85is a quadrilateral. The southern side begins at the outlets of the Indos and at Patalene and ends at Karmania and the mouth of the Persian Gulf, having a promontory stretching considerably to the south, and then making a turn into the gulf toward Persis. First there are the Ar-bies (named like the Arbis River, the boundary between them and the next people, the Oreitai), who have a seacoast of 1,000 stadia, as Near-chos says. This is a part of India. Then there are the Oreitai, an autono-mous people. The sail along the seacoast is 7,800 stadia, and along the next peoples, the Ichthyophagoi, 1,400, and along the Karmanian terri-tory as far as Persis, 3,700, so that the total is 12,900.78 (IIIB20, IIIB23). Strabo, Geography 15.2.8–9.(8) It [Ariana] is large, and Gedrosia extends into the interior until it touches the Drangai, Arachotoi, and Paropamisadai, concerning which Eratosthenes has spoken as follows (for I cannot say it any better). He says that Ariana is bordered on the east by the Indos, on the south by the Great Ocean, on the north by the Paropamisos and the mountains continuing up to the Kaspian Gates, and on the west by the same boundaries that separate Parthyene from Media and Karmania from Paraitakene and Persis. The width of the territory is the length of the Indos from the Paropamisos to its outlets, 12,000 stadia (although some say 13,000), and the length from the Kaspian Gates is recorded in the treatise Asiatic Stopping Points in two ways. As far as Alexandria of the Areioi, from the Kaspian Gates through the Parthyaiai there is one route, and then there is a straight route through Baktriana and over the mountain pass into Ortospana to the meeting of three roads from Baktra, which is among the Paropamisadai. The other route turns slightly from Aria toward the south to Prophthasia in Drangiane, and the rest of it then goes back to the Indian boundary. This route through the territory of the Drangai and Arachosia is longer, 15,300 stadia in its entirety. If one were to remove 1,300, the remainder would be a straight line and the length of the territory would be 14,000. The sea-coast is not much less, although some increase it and in addition to the 10,000 add Karmania with 6,000, including the gulfs or the seacoast of Karmania within the Persian Gulf. The name Ariana is extended to a certain part of Persis and Media as well as to the Baktrians and Sogda-ians toward the north, who speak roughly the same language, only slightly different.(9) The arrangement of the peoples is as follows: along the Indos are the Paropamisadai, above whom is Mt. Paropamisos. Then, toward the south, are the Arachotoi, and next toward the south the Gedrosenoi
86 GEOGRAPHIKAalong with the others on the seacoast, with the Indos lying alongside all these. Some of these places along the Indos are possessed by certain Indians, but were formerly Persian. Alexander took them away from the Arians and established his own foundation, and Seleukos Nikator gave them to Sandrakottos, concluding an intermarriage and receiving 500 elephants in return. Lying to the west of the Paropamisadai are the Arioi, and the Drangai [are west] of the Arachotoi and Gedrosioi, but the Arioi also lie to the north of the Drangai, as well as to the west, al-most encircling a small part of them. Baktiane lies to the north of Aria and then there are the Paropamisadai, through whom Alexander passed over the Kaukasos pushing toward Baktra. To the west, next to the Arioi, are the Parthyaioi and the territory around the Kaspian Gates, and to the south is the Karmanian desert, and then the rest of Karma-nia and Gedrosia.79 (IIIB19). Strabo, Geography 2.1.22.He [Eratosthenes] sees that Ariana has three sides suitably formed for the creation of a parallelogram, although he cannot mark off the west-ern side by points, because the peoples there alternate with one another, yet he indicates it nevertheless by a line from the Kaspian Gates ending at the promontories of Karmania that touch the Persian Gulf. He calls this side the western and that along the Indos the eastern, but he does not say that they are parallel, nor the others, the ones delineated by the mountain and by the sea, but merely [calls them] the northern and the southern.80 (IIIA30). Strabo, Geography 2.1.28.Eratosthenes has not said that the line bounding the western side of Ariana lies on a meridian, nor that [the line] from the Kaspian Gates to Thapsakos is at right angles with the meridian through the Kaspian Gates, but rather [mentions the line] marked by the mountain, with which [the line] from Thapsakos makes an angle, since it has been brought down from the same point as that from which the line at the mountain [has been drawn]. Moreover, he has not said that the line to Babylon from Karmania is parallel to the line to Thapsakos.81 (IIIB24). Strabo, Geography 15.2.14.Karmania is the last place on the seacoast [that runs] from the Indos, although much farther north than the outlet of the Indos. Its ﬁrst prom-ontory, however, stretches to the south, toward the Great Ocean, mak-
87ing the mouth of the Persian Gulf, along with the promontory extending from Arabia Eudaimon (which is in view), and it bends toward the Per-sian Gulf until it touches Persis.The Third Sealstone (Mesopotamia)82. Strabo, Geography 2.1.31.Ariana cannot easily be outlined because its western side is confused, but it is bounded by three sides, which are approximately straight, and also by its name, that of one people. But, as it has been determined, the third sealstone is completely undeﬁned, for the common side between it and Ariana is confused, as I have said, and the southern side has been taken most sloppily, for it does not outline the sealstone, since it runs through the middle of it, and many portions toward the south are left out, nor does it trace the greatest length, for the northern side is longer. The Euphrates is not the western side, even if it ﬂowed in a straight line, since its extremities do not lie on the same meridian.83 (IIIB25). Strabo, Geography 2.1.23–6.(23) He [Eratosthenes] thus renders the second sealstone by the form of a rough outline, but he renders the third sealstone much more roughly, for several reasons. First, as already mentioned, the side from the Kas-pian Gates to Karmania, common to the third and second sealstones, has not been deﬁned distinctly, and then the Persian Gulf breaks into the southern side, as he himself says, and thus he was forced to take the line from Babylon as if it were straight, through Sousa and Persepolis to the borders of Karmania and Persis, on which he was able to ﬁnd a measured route, being in total slightly more than 9,000 stadia. This he calls the southern side but he does not say that it is parallel to the northern. It is clear that the Euphrates, by which he marks off the west-ern side, is nothing like a straight line, but after ﬂowing from the moun-tains to the south it then turns toward the east and then back to the south until it empties into the sea. He makes clear that the river is not straight, in showing the shape of Mesopotamia, which is created by the conﬂuence of the Tigris and the Euphrates, and resembles a rower’s cushion, as he says. Moreover, for the portion from Thapsakos to Arme-nia he does not have a complete measurement like that of the western side which is marked off by the Euphrates, and he reports that he cannot say how much further the distance is to Armenia and the northern moun-tains, as it is unmeasured. Because of all this he says that he represents
88 GEOGRAPHIKAthe third portion very roughly. And he says that he collected the dis-tances from many reports of those who had worked out the stopping points, some of which he says were without titles.Strabo’s criticisms of Hipparchos omitted. Thus he [Eratosthenes] says that he has shown the third por-tion roughly, with a length of 10,000 stadia from the Kaspian Gates to the Euphrates, and in dividing it into portions he set down the mea-surements as he found them already recorded, beginning in reverse from the Euphrates and its crossing at Thapsakos. As far as the Tigris, where Alexander crossed it, he writes 2,400 stadia, and then to the fol-lowing places through Gaugamela, the Lykos, Arbela, and Ekbatana (by which Dareios ﬂed from Gaugamela to the Kaspian Gates) he ﬁlls out with 10,000, having an excess of only 300 stadia. This is how he mea-sures out the northern side, not having placed it parallel with the moun-tains or with the line through the Pillars, Athens, and Rhodes. For Thapsakos is far away from the mountains, and the mountains and the route from Thapsakos come together at the Kaspian Gates. These are the northern portions of the boundary.(25) Having thus represented the northern side, he says that the southern cannot be taken along the sea because the Persian Gulf breaks into it, but from Babylon through Sousa and Persepolis to the boundar-ies of Persis and Karmania it is 9,200 stadia, which he calls the south-ern side, but he does not say that the southern is parallel to the north-ern. He says that the difference in length that occurs between the assumed northern and southern sides is because the Euphrates, having ﬂowed to the south up to a point, turns more toward the east.(26) Of the two ﬂanking sides, he ﬁrst speaks about the western. What it is like and whether it is one or two [lines] is considered uncer-tain. He says that from the Thapsakos crossing along the Euphrates to Babylon is 4,800 stadia, and from there to the outlet of the Euphrates and the city of Teredon is 3,000. But from Thapsakos to the north it has been measured as far as the Armenian Gates and is about 1,100, but through Gordyaiane and Armenia it is unknown and thus omitted. The eastern side, that which goes through Persis lengthwise from the Ery-thraian Sea somewhat toward Media and the north, he believes is no less than 8,000, and from certain promontories, over 9,000. The remain-der through Paraitakene and Media to the Kaspian Gates is about 3,000. The Tigris and the Euphrates ﬂow from Armenia to the south, and when they pass the mountains of Gordyaiane go around a great circle and enclose the large territory of Mesopotamia and then turn toward the winter sunrise and the south, especially the Euphrates. It constantly
89becomes closer to the Tigris around the Wall of Semiramis and the vil-lage of Opis (from which it is only 200 stadia). Flowing through Baby-lon, it empties into the Persian Gulf. Thus it happens, he says, that the shape of Mesopotamia and Babylonia is like a cushion on a rowing bench. This is what Eratosthenes has said.84 (IIIB26). Strabo, Geography 2.1.27.He [Eratosthenes] says that the third section is bounded on its northern side by a line from the Kaspian Gates to the Euphrates, 10,000 stadia, but later he adds that the southern side, from Babylonia to the borders of Karmania, is slightly more than 9,000, and the western side from Thapsakos along the Euphrates to Babylon is 4,800 stadia, and to the outlet 3,000. As for the distance north of Thapsakos, one part has been measured at 1,100, but the remainder is unknown.85 (IIIB27). Strabo, Geography 2.1.34.He [Hipparchos] says that he [Eratosthenes] records the distance from Babylon to the Kaspian Gates as 6,700 stadia, and to the borders of Karmania and Persis over 9,000, following a line made straight to equi-noctial east. This is perpendicular to the side common with the second and third sealstones, and thus a right-angle triangle is created with the right angle on the boundaries of Karmania and the hypotenuse shorter than one of the sides of the right angle, which necessarily puts Persis into the second sealstone. But I have said in regard to this that he [Era-tosthenes] does not take [the distance] from Babylon to Karmania on a parallel, nor does he say that the straight line that separates the seal-stones is a meridian, so he [Hipparchos] cannot speak against him. His further charge is also not good, since he [Eratosthenes] said that from the Kaspian Gates to Babylon was as already mentioned, and to Sousa 4,900 and from there to Babylon 3,400.86 (IIIB34). Strabo, Geography 15.3.1.According to Eratosthenes, the length of the territory toward the north and the Kaspian Gates is about 8,000, advancing by certain promonto-ries, and the remainder to the Kaspian Gates is no more than 2,000. The width, in the interior, from Sousa to Persepolis, is 4,200 stadia, and from there to the border of Karmania an additional 1,600. The tribes living in the country are the so-called Pateischoreis, Achaimenidai, and the Magoi. They have chosen a certain holy life, but the Kyrtioi and Mardoi are piratical, and others are farmers.
90 GEOGRAPHIKA87 (IIIB38, IIIB31). Strabo, Geography 16.1.21–2.(21) Mesopotamia is named from what it is. As I have said, it lies be-tween the Euphrates and Tigris, and thus the Tigris washes only the eastern side, and the Euphrates the western and southern. To the north is the Tauros, which separates Armenia from Mesopotamia. The great-est distance that they are apart from one another is toward the moun-tains, which would be the same as Eratosthenes has said, 2,400, from Thapsakos—where the ancient bridge over the Euphrates was—to the crossing of the Tigris where Alexander himself crossed. The least is slightly more than 200 somewhere around Seleukeia and Babylon. The Tigris ﬂows through the lake called Thopitis, through the middle of its width, and crossing to the opposite edge sinks under the earth with a great noise and upward blasts. It is invisible for a distance, and then appears again not far from Gordyaia. It thus runs through it so vehe-mently, as Eratosthenes says, that although it is generally salty and without ﬁsh, this part is sweet, with a strong current, and full of ﬁsh.(22) The contracting of Mesopotamia goes on for a great length, somewhat like a boat, with the Euphrates making most of the circum-ference, and it is 4,800 stadia from Thapsakos as far as Babylon, as Era-tosthenes says, and from Zeugma in Kommagene, where Mesopotamia begins, to Thapsakos is no less than 2,000 stadia.88. Strabo, Geography 14.2.29.The places lying in a straight line [from Tomisa on the Euphrates] as far as India are the same in Artemidoros as Eratosthenes. But Polybios says that the former must be the most trusted in regard to those places. He begins from Samosata in Kommagene, which lies at the crossing and at Zeugma, and says that to Samosata, from the boundaries of Kappa-dokia around Tomisa across the Tauros, is 450 stadia.89 (IIIB32). Strabo, Geography 11.14.8.The Tigris rushes from the mountainous territory near the Niphates, and the ﬂow remains unmixed [with Lake Thopitis] because of its quick-ness, from which comes its name, since the Medes call an arrow “tigris.” And while it has many types of ﬁsh, there is only one type in the lake. Around the innermost part of the lake the river falls into a pit and ﬂows underground for some distance, coming up around Chalonitis. From there it goes down toward Opis and the so-called Wall of Semira-mis, leaving the Gordyaioi and all Mesopotamia on the right, but the Euphrates, on the contrary, has the same territory on the left. Coming near to one another and producing Mesopotamia, the former runs
91through Seleukeia to the Persian Gulf and the latter through Babylon, which I said somewhere in my discussion against Eratosthenes and Hipparchos.90 (IIIB37). Strabo, Geography 16.1.15.A large amount of asphalt is produced in Babylonia, about which Era-tosthenes says that the liquid kind, which is called naphtha, is found in Sousis, but the dry kind, which can be solidiﬁed, is in Babylonia. There is a fountain of it near the Euphrates, and at the time of ﬂooding by snow melt it ﬁlls and overﬂows into the river. Large lumps are formed that are suitable for structures of baked brick.91 (IIIB35). Stephanos of Byzantion, “Assyria.”Assyres is said by Eratosthenes, as well as Illyres, from the Illyrians.The Fourth Sealstone (Arabia, Egypt, and Aithiopia)92 (IIIA29). Strabo, Geography 2.1.32.The fourth sealstone is composed of Arabia Eudaimon, the Arabian Gulf, all Egypt, and Aithiopia. The length of this portion will be that bounded by the two meridians, one of which is drawn through its western point and the other through the most eastern. The width will be between two parallels, one of which is drawn through the most northern point and the other [through] the most southern.93 (IIIB41). Pliny, Natural History 6.108.It [the Erythraian Sea] is divided into two gulfs. The one in the east is called the Persian, 2,500 miles around, as Eratosthenes reports. Oppo-site is Arabia, which is 1,500 miles around, and on the other side is the second bay, called the Arabian, and the ocean that ﬂows in is the Aza-nian. At its entrance the width of the Persian [Gulf] is, according to some, ﬁve miles, and to others, four miles. From there to the inner gulf has been determined to be nearly 1,125 miles in a straight line, and its form is the shape of a human head.94 (IIIB39). Strabo, Geography 16.3.2–6.(2) The Persian Gulf is also called the Persian Sea. Eratosthenes says the following about it: he says that its mouth is so narrow that from Harmozai, the promontory of Karmania, one can look across to that of Makai in Arabia. From its mouth the right-hand coast, being curved, is
92 GEOGRAPHIKAat ﬁrst turned slightly to the east from Karmania, and then bends to-ward the north, and afterward toward the west as far as Teredon and the mouth of the Euphrates, consisting of the Karmanian coast, and part of the Persian, Sousian, and Babylonian, about 10,000 stadia, con-cerning which I have already spoken. From there to its mouth is the same distance. This, he says, is according to Androsthenes the Thasian, who sailed with Nearchos and also by himself. It is thus clear that this sea is only slightly smaller than the Euxeinos Sea. He [Eratosthenes] says that he [Androsthenes], who sailed around the gulf with an expedi-tion, said that beyond Teredon—having the continent on his right and sailing along the coast—is the island of Ikaros, with a temple on it sa-cred to Apollo and an oracle of Tauropolos.(3) After sailing along Arabia for 2,400 stadia there is the city of Gerrha, lying on a deep gulf, where Chaldaians exiled from Babylon live. The land is salty and they have houses of salt, and since ﬂakes of salt come away because of the heat of the sun and fall off, they sprinkle the walls with water and keep them solid. The city is 200 stadia from the sea. The Gerrhaians mostly trade by land for Arabian goods and ar-omatics. In contrast Aristoboulos says that the Gerrhaians generally travel on rafts to Babylonia for trade, sailing up the Euphrates with their goods to Thapsakos, and distributing them everywhere from there by land.(4) Sailing farther, there are other islands, Tyros and Arados, which have temples like those of the Phoenicians. Those living there say that the islands and cities that have the same names are Phoenician settle-ments. These islands are ten days’ sail from Teredon and one day from the mouth at the promontory of Makai.(5) Both Nearchos and Orthagoras say that the island of Ogyris lies on the Southern Ocean at a distance of 2,000 stadia, and on it the grave of Erythras can be seen, a large mound planted with wild palms. He was king of that region and left the sea named after himself. They say that these things were pointed out to them by Mithropastes son of Arsites the satrap of Phrygia, who had been exiled by Dareios and passed his time on the island, joining them when they landed in the Persian Gulf and attempting through them to return home.(6) Along the entire coast of the Erythraian Sea are trees in the depths that are like laurel and olive, completely visible at low tide but completely covered at high tide, although the land lying above is with-out trees, thus intensifying the peculiarity. Concerning the region of the Persian Sea, which, as I have said, forms the eastern side of Arabia Eu-daimon, this is what Eratosthenes has said.
9395 (IIIB48). Strabo, Geography 16.4.2–4.(2) But I return to Eratosthenes, who sets forth what he knows about Arabia. He says, concerning its northerly or desert part, which is be-tween Arabia Eudaimon and Koile Syria and Judaea as far as the re-cesses of the Arabian Gulf (from Heroonpolis, which is at the recess of the Arabian Gulf near the Nile), that it is 5,600 stadia toward Nabataean Petra to Babylon, entirely toward the summer sunrise, through the adja-cent Arabian tribes, the Nabataeans, Chaulotaioi, and Agraioi. Beyond these is Eudaimon, which extends for 12,000 stadia toward the south as far as the Atlantic Ocean. The ﬁrst people there, beyond the Syrians and Judaeans, are farmers. Beyond these the land is very sandy and wretched, with a few palm trees, a thorny plant, and the tamarisk, and water by digging, just as in Gedrosia. The tent-dwelling Arabians and camel herders are there. The extremities, toward the south, rising opposite to Aithiopia, are watered by summer rains and have two sowings, like India, and the rivers are consumed by plains and lakes. It is fertile and abundant in honey production. It has plenty of fatted animals (except for horses, mules, and pigs), and all kinds of birds except geese and chickens. The four most numerous peoples living in the extremity of the previously mentioned territory are the Minaioi, in the district toward the Erythraian Sea, whose largest city is Karna or Karnana; next to these are the Sabaioi, whose metropolis is Mariaba; third are the Kat-tabaneis, extending to the straits and the crossing of the Arabian Gulf, whose royal seat is called Tamna; and, farthest toward the east are the Chatramotitai, whose city is Sabata.(3) All are monarchies and prosperous, beautifully furnished with temples and palaces. Their houses are like those of the Egyptians re-garding the joining of the beams. The four districts have more territory than the Egyptian Delta. No child succeeds to the kingship of his father, but the child of a distinguished person who was born ﬁrst after the ac-cession of the king. At the same time that someone accedes to the throne, the pregnant wives of distinguished men are recorded and guards are placed. The son who is born ﬁrst to one of them is by law adopted and raised in a royal fashion to be the successor.(4) Kattabania produces frankincense, and Chatramotitis myrrh, and these and other aromatics are traded with merchants. They come there from Ailana, arriving in Minaia in 70 days. Ailana is a city on the other recess of the Arabian gulf, the one opposite Gaza called the Ailanitic, as I have already said. The Gerrhaioi, however, arrive at Chatramotitis in 40 days. The part of the Arabian Gulf along the side of Arabia, begin-ning at the Ailanitic recess, was recorded by those around Alexander,
94 GEOGRAPHIKAespecially Anaxikrates, as 14,000 stadia, although this is said to be too much. The part opposite the Trogodytic territory, which is on the right when sailing from Heroonpolis, as far as Ptolemais and the elephant-hunting territory, is 9,000 stadia to the south and slightly toward the east, and then, as far as the straits, 4,500 somewhat more to the east. The straits are created by a promontory called Deire, and a small town with the same name, in which the Ichthyophagoi live. Here, it is said, there is a pillar of Sesostris the Egyptian that records his crossing in hieroglyph-ics. It appears that he was the ﬁrst to subdue the Aithiopic and Trogo-dytic territory, and then he crossed into Arabia and proceeded against all Asia. Because of this, fortiﬁcations of Sesostris are identiﬁed everywhere, as well as reproductions of temples to the Egyptian gods. The straits at Deire narrow to 60 stadia. But these are not called the straits now, but, sailing further along, where the passage between the continents is about 200 stadia, there are six islands that come in succession and ﬁll up the crossing, leaving extremely narrow passages through which boats carry goods across, and these are called the straits. After the islands, the next sailing, following the bays along the myrrh-bearing territory toward the south, and east as far as the kinnamomon-bearing territory, is about 5,000 stadia. It is said that until now no one has gone beyond this region. There are not many cities on the coast, but many beautiful settlements in the interior. This, then, is the account of Eratosthenes about Arabia.96 (IIIB36). Strabo, Geography 16.1.12.Eratosthenes, mentioning the lakes near Arabia, says that when the water is unable to exit, it opens underground passages and ﬂows under-ground as far as Koile Syria, pressing into the region of Rhinokoloura and Mt. Kasion, creating lakes and pits there.97 (IIIB50). Pliny, Natural History 6.163.Timosthenes ﬁgured the entire gulf at four [?] days’ sail in length and two in width, and 7½ miles at its narrowest, Eratosthenes 1,200 miles from the mouth on either side, Artemidoros 1,750 miles for the length of the Arabian side and on the Trogodytic side 1184½ miles as far as Ptolemais.98 (IIIB51). Strabo, Geography 17.1.1–2.(1) In making the rounds of Arabia we have included the gulfs that tighten it up and make it a peninsula, the Persian and Arabian, and at the same time have described parts of Egypt and Aithiopia, that of the Trogodytai and those beyond them as far as the Kinnamomophoroi. The remaining [territory] that touches these peoples must be set forth,
95the regions around the Nile. Afterward we will go across Libya, which is the last topic of the entire Geography, and also the assertions of Era-tosthenes must be expounded.(2) He says that the Nile is 900 or 1,000 stadia west of the Arabian Gulf, similar to the shape of a backward letter N, for, he says, after ﬂow-ing from Meroë toward the north for about 2,700 stadia, it turns back toward the south and the winter sunset for about 3,700 stadia, and after coming almost opposite to the location of Meroë and projecting far into Libya, it makes the second turn and is carried to the north, 5,300 stadia, to the great cataract, turning aside slightly toward the east, and then 1,200 to the smaller one at Syene, and then 5,300 more to the sea. There are two rivers that empty into it, which come from certain lakes to the east and encircle Meroë, a good-sized island. One of these is called the Astaboras, ﬂowing on the eastern side, and the other the Astapous, al-though some call it the Astasobas, saying that another is the Astapous, ﬂowing from certain lakes to the south, and that this one makes almost the entire straight body of the Nile, created by ﬁlling with summer rains. Seven hundred stadia above the conﬂuence of the Astaboras and the Nile is Meroë, a city with the same name as the island. There is another island above Meroë that is held by the Egyptian fugitives who revolted at the time of Psammitichos, called the Sembritai, which means “for-eigners.” They are ruled by a woman but are subject to those in Meroë. In the lower districts on either side of Meroë, along the Nile toward the Erythraian Sea, live the Megabaroi and Blemmyes, subject to the Aithi-opians and bordering the Egyptians, and along the sea are the Trogo-dytes. The Trogodytes opposite Meroë lie ten or 12 days’ journey from the Nile. On the left side of the course of the Nile in Libya live the Nou-bai, a large group of people who begin at Meroë and extend as far as the bends, not subject to the Aithiopians but divided into a number of sepa-rate kingdoms. The extent of Egypt along the sea from the Pelousiac to the Kanobic mouth is 1,300 stadia. Eratosthenes has these things.99 (IIIB52). Proklos, Commentary on Plato’s Timaios p. 37b.Others say that the increase in the Nile is because of the rain pouring into it, which is said explicitly by Eratosthenes.Libya100 (IIIB59). Strabo, Geography 17.3.1–2.(1) I will next speak about Libya, which is the remaining part of the en-tire Geography. I have previously said much about it, but now additional
96 GEOGRAPHIKAappropriate matters must also be mentioned, adding what has not been previously said. Those who have divided the inhabited world have di-vided it unequally, but Libya is so much lacking in being a third part that even if it were combined with Europe it would not seem to be equal to Asia. Perhaps it is smaller than Europe, and greatly so in regard to its importance, for much of the interior and coast along the Ocean is desert, dotted with small settlements that are for the most part scat-tered and nomadic. In addition to the desert, it abounds in wild beasts that drive [the inhabitants] away even from areas capable of habitation, and it occupies much of the burned zone. However, all of the coast oppo-site us is prosperously settled—that between the Nile and the Pillars—especially the part that is under the Karchedonians, although even here portions are found without water, such as those around the Syrtes, Mar-maridai, and Katabathmos. It is in the shape of a right-angled triangle, as conceived on a level surface, having as its base the seacoast opposite us from Egypt and the Nile as far as Maurousia and the Pillars, as the side perpendicular to this that which is formed by the Nile as far as Ai-thiopia and extended by us to the Ocean, and as the hypotenuse to the right angle the entire coast of the Ocean between the Aithiopians and the Maurousians. That at the extremity of the previously mentioned triangle, lying somewhat within the burned [zone], we can speak about only from conjecture because it is inaccessible, so we cannot speak of the greatest width of the land, although we have said in a previous section this much, that going to the south from Alexandria to Meroë, the royal capital of the Aithiopians, is about 10,000 stadia, and from there in a straight line to the boundaries between the burned and inhabited re-gions is another 3,000. Then this should be put down as the greatest width of Libya, 13,000 or 14,000 stadia, with the length slightly less than double. This is then the totality about Libya, but I must speak about each [region], beginning from the western parts, the most famous.(2) At this point is the strait called the Pillars of Herakles, of which I have spoken often. Going outside the strait at the Pillars, having Libya on the left, there is the mountain that the Hellenes call Atlas and the barbarians Dyris. From these something projects farthest toward the west of Maurousia, called the Koteis. Nearby is a small town by the sea that the barbarians call Tinx, but Artemidoros calls it Lynx and Eratos-thenes Lixos. It lies across the strait from the Gadeirenes, 800 stadia across the sea, which is about as far as each lies from the strait at the Pillars. To the south of Lixos and the Koteis lies the gulf called Empor-ikos, having settlements of Phoenician merchants. The entire seacoast encompassed by this gulf is indented, but the gulfs and projections
97should be removed, according to the triangle shape I have outlined. One must conceive that the continent increases to the south and east. The mountain that extends through Maurousia from the Koteis as far as the Syrtes is inhabited, both it and the others that are parallel, ﬁrst by Maurousians but deep within the territory by the most numerous of the Libyan peoples, called the Gaitoulai.101 (IIIB53). Pliny, Natural History 5.39.Eratosthenes records the land route from Kyrene to Alexandria as 525 miles.102 (IIIB54). Strabo, Geography 2.1.40 (part of F65).[Eratosthenes says] that it is over 13,000 [stadia] from Alexandria to Karchedon.103 (IIC20). Pliny, Natural History 5.40.Polybios and Eratosthenes, who are considered most diligent, made it 1,100 miles from the Ocean to Great Carthage, and 1,628 miles from there to the Kanopos, the nearest mouth of the Nile.104 (IIIB56). Strabo, Geography 2.5.20.Of the Syrtes, the lesser one is about 1,600 stadia in circumference, and the islands Meninx and Kerkina lie on either side of its mouth. Eratos-thenes says that the Great Syrtes has a circuit of 5,000 and it is 1,800 deep, from the Hesperides to Automala and the boundary in that region between the Kyrenaika and the rest of Libya.105 (IIIB57). Pliny, Natural History 5.41.These seas do not include many islands. The most famous is Meninx, 25 miles across and 22 wide, which Eratosthenes called Lotophagitis. It has two towns, Meninx on the African side and Thoas on the other, [the island] itself located 1½ miles from the promontory on the right side of the Lesser Syrtis. One hundred miles from it off the left-hand side is Kerkina, with the free city of the same name. It is 25 miles long and half that across where it is widest, but no more than ﬁve at the end. Joined to it by a bridge is tiny Kerkinitis, toward Carthage. About 50 miles from these is Lopadousa, six miles long, then Gaulos and Galata, whose earth kills scorpions, the terrible animal of Africa.106 (IIIB58). Strabo, Geography 3.5.5.For this reason [a mythological explanation] some believe that the peaks at the strait are the Pillars, others at Gadeira, and others that they lie
98 GEOGRAPHIKAfarther outside of Gadeira. Some assume that the Pillars are Kalpe and Abilyx, which is the mountain opposite in Libya and which Eratosthe-nes says is situated in Metagonion, a Nomadic people, and others that they are the islets near each [mountain], one of which is named Hera’s Island. Artemidoros speaks of Hera’s Island and her temple, and he mentions another, but neither Mount Abilyx or the Metagonian people. Some transfer the Planktai and Symplegades here, believing these to be the Pillars that Pindar calls the Gadeiran Gates, saying that they were the farthest point reached by Herakles. And Dikaiarchos, Eratosthenes, and Polybios and most of the Hellenes believe that the Pillars are around the narrows.107 (IIIB60). Strabo, Geography 17.3.8.Artemidoros disagrees with Eratosthenes because he says that a cer-tain city near the western extremities of Maurousia is Lixos rather than Lynx, and that there are a large number of Phoenician cities that have been destroyed and of which there are no traces to be seen, and because he says that the air among the western Aithiopians is brackish, and that the air at the hours of daybreak and the afternoon is thick and misty.The Northeastern Part of the Inhabited World108 (IIIB20, IIIB63). Strabo, Geography 11.8.8–9.(8) Eratosthenes says that the Arachotoi and Massagetai are alongside the Baktrians to the west along the Oxos, and that the Sakai and Sogdi-anoi and all their territory lie opposite India, although the Baktrians only for a small distance, for they are mostly along the Paropamisos. The Sakai and Sogdians are separated by the Iaxartes, and the Sogdia-noi and Baktrians by the Oxos, and the Tapyroi live between the Hyr-kanians and the Arioi. In a circuit around the [Kaspian] sea, after the Hyrkanians are the Amardoi, Anariakai, Kadousioi, Albanoi, Kaspioi, and Ouitioi, and perhaps others, until the Skythians are reached. On the other side of the Hyrkanians are the Derbikes, and the Kadousioi touch the Medes and the Matianoi below the Parachoathras.(9) He says that these are the distances: from Kaspios to the Kyros is about 1,800 stadia, and then to the Kaspian Gates 5,600, to Alexan-dria among the Arioi, 6,400, then to the city of Baktra, also called Zari-aspa, 3,800, then to the Iaxartes River, to which Alexander came, about 5,000, a total of 22,670. He [Eratosthenes] also says that the distances from the Kaspian Gates to India are as follows: to Hekatompylos they
99say is 1,960, to Alexandria among the Arioi 4,530, then to Prophthasia in Drange 1,600 (others say 1,500), then to the city of the Arachotoi 4,120, then to Ortospana and the meeting of three roads from Baktra 2,000, and then to the borders of India 1,000, a total of 15,300. It must be believed that the length of India is a distance in a straight line, that from the Indos as far as the eastern sea.109 (IIIB67). Strabo, Geography 11.7.3.The rivers ﬂowing through Hyrkania are the Oxos and Ochos, which empty into the sea. Of these, the Ochos also ﬂows through Hesaia, but some say that the Ochos empties into the Oxos. Aristoboulos says that the Oxos is the largest he had seen in Asia, except those in India. He also says that it is navigable (he and Eratosthenes took this from Pa-trokles), and that many Indian goods come down it to the Hyrkanian Sea, and from there are carried over to Albania by means of the Kyros River, brought down through the successive places to the Euxeinos.110 (IIIB68). Strabo, Geography 11.6.1.The second portion begins from the Kaspian Sea, where the ﬁrst comes to an end. The same sea is also called the Hyrkanian. It is necessary to speak ﬁrst about the sea and the peoples living around it. It is the gulf that extends from the Ocean to the south, somewhat narrow at its en-trance but becoming wider as it goes inland, especially around its re-cess, where it is about 5,000 stadia. Sailing from the entrance to the re-cess would be slightly more, since it nearly touches the uninhabited region. Eratosthenes says that the circuit of this sea was well known to the Hellenes, and the portion along the Albanians and Kadousioi is 5,400 stadia, and the portion along the Anariakoi, Mardoi, and Hyr-kanoi to the mouth of the Oxos River is 4,800, and from there to the Iaxartes, 2,400.111 (IIIB71). Pliny, Natural History 6.36.Eratosthenes makes the measurement on the southeast along the coast of the Kadousiai and Albania as 9,000 stadia, and from there through the Atiakoi, Amarboi, and Hyrkanoi to the mouth of the Zonos River 4,900 stadia, and from there to the mouth of the Iaxartes 2,400, which makes a total of 1,575 miles.112 (IIIB72). Scholia to Apollonios of Rhodes 2.1247.Eratosthenes says that those called the Kaukasiai are near the Kas-pian Sea.
100 GEOGRAPHIKA113 (IIIB73). Strabo, Geography 11.2.15.Eratosthenes says that the Kaukasos is called the Kaspian by those liv-ing there, perhaps derived from the Kaspioi.114 (IIIB79). Ammianus Marcellius 22.8.10.The sail around its entire shore [of the Euxine], as if the circuit of an is-land, is 23,000 stadia, as Eratosthenes asserts, as well as Hekataios, Ptolemy, and others who have investigated such issues very carefully, and all geographers agree that it is shaped like a drawn Skythian bow.115 (IIIB78). Pliny, Natural History 6.3.The dimensions of the Pontos from the Bosporos to the Maiotic Lake some make as 1,438½ miles, but Eratosthenes 100 less.116 (IIIB77). Pliny, Natural History 5.47.The distance from the mouth of the Pontos to the mouth of the Maiotis Eratosthenes records as 1,545 miles.Anatolia117 (IIIB80). Scholia to Euripides, Medea 2.Eratosthenes in his geographical treatise says that the passage [at the Symplegades] is narrow and crooked, because of which it was imagined that sailors would be caught in the rocks.118 (IIIB82). Tzetzes on Lykophron, Alexandra 1285.Eratosthenes calls them the Synormades. He says that they are hidden and unseen [rocks] around the Euxeinos Sea, especially in the narrows.119 (IIIB84). Strabo, Geography 11.14.7.There are a number of rivers in the territory, the best known of which are the Phasis and the Lykos, which empty into the Pontic Sea. Eratos-thenes has wrongly put down the Thermodon instead of the Lykos.120 (IIIB75). Scholia to Apollonios of Rhodes 2.399.The Phasis ﬂows from the mountains of Armenia, as Eratosthenes says. It empties into the sea at Kolchis.121 (IIIB76). Scholia to Apollonios of Rhodes 4.131.The Titenis River, from which the land of Titenis is named, is mentioned by Eratosthenes in his Geography.